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African American Movements

(See also Abolitionists, African American History, Life & Values to 1968, African American History, Life & Values since 1968, Civil Rights Movement, American Radicalism, Hip-Hop Politics, Muslim American History, Life & Values, White Racism, Jim Crow, Lynching & Jamaica)

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On the Web: Articles

America's Debt to Blacks. Randall Robinson, Nation (2/23/00).

On the Web: Specialized Sites

Black America Web.

The Black Commentator.

Black Panther Party.

Black Radical Congress.

Congressional Black Caucus.

Ethnic Majority.

Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

National Association of Black Journalists.

National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice.

National Black Caucus of State Legislators.

National Coalition on Black Civic Participation.

National Trust for the Development of African American Men.

National Urban League.

Nation of Islam.

Women in Mourning & Outrage.

In the Library: Articles

Bates, Beth Tompkins. "A new crowd challenges the agenda of the Old Guard in the NAACP, 1933-1941," American Historical Review 102,2 (4/97):340-77.

Berubé, Michael. "Public academy," New Yorker (1/9/97). On Cornell West, Bell Hooks & other contemporary Black intellectuals.

Boggs, Grace Lee. "Martin & Malcolm: how shall we honor our heroes?" Monthly Review 49,2 (6/97):10-19.

Bouvard, Marguerite Guzmán. "Dollie B. Burwell (interview)," in her Women Reshaping Human Rights (Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 1996), pp. 179-197. North Carolina community & environmental justice organizer.

Brown-Nagin, Tomiko. "The transformation of a social movement into law? The SCLC & NAACP's campaigns for civil rights reconsidered in the light of the educational activism of Septima Clark," Women's History Review 8 (1999):81-138.

Cha-Jua, Sundiata K. "Mississippi Burning: the burning of Black self-activity," Radical History Review 45 (1989):125-36.

Cruse, Harold W. "Revolutionary nationalism & the Afro-American," Studies on the Left 2,3 (1962), & comments in 3,1 (1963). Controversial argument for Black separatism.

DeJong, Greta. "'With the aid of God & the FSA': the Louisiana Farmers' Union & the African American freedom struggle in the New Deal era," Journal of Social History 34 (2000):105-40.

Dreifus, Claudia. "Julian Bond [interview]," Progressive (8/98).

__________. "Kareem Abdul-Jabbar," "Myrlie Evers," "Samuel L. Jackson," "Toni Morrison," & "Andrew Young" in her Interview (NY: Seven Stories, 1999).

Dudziak, Mary. "Desegregation as a Cold War imperative," Stanford Law Review 41, 61 (11/88):61-120.

Estes, Steve. "'I am a man!': race, masculinity & the 1968 Memphis sanitation strike," Labor History 41 (2000):153-70.

Gaines, Kevin. "Rethinking race & class in African-American struggles for equality, 1885-1941," American Historical Review 102,2 (3/97):378-87.

Gambino, Ferruccio. "The transgression of a laborer: Malcolm X in the wilderness of America," Radical History Review 55 (win 93):7-32.

Garvey, Marcus & others. "Black nationalism: the early debate," Studies on the Left 4,3 (1964).

Gregor, A. James. "Black nationalism: a preliminary analysis of Negro radicalism," Science & Society 27 (1963):415-32.

Griffin, Larry & Robert R. Korstad. "Class as race & gender: making & breaking a labor union in the Jim Crow South," Social Science History 19 (1995):425-54.

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. "'You must remember this': autobiography as social critique," Journal of American History 85 (1998):439-65.

__________. "Broadus Mitchell, 1892-1988," Radical History Review 45 (1989):31-38.

Harding, Vincent. "Wrestling with the dawn: the Afro-American freedom movement & the changing Constitution," Journal of American History 74 (1987):718-39.

Horne, Gerald. "'Myth' & the making of 'Malcolm X'," American Historical Review 98,2 (4/93):440-50.

Levine, Lawrence W. "The historical odyssey of Nathan Irvin Huggins," Radical History Review 5 (win 1993):112-34.

Lewis, Earl. "To turn as on a pivot: writing African Americans into a history of overlapping diasporas," American Historical Review 100,3 (6/95):765-87.

Marable, Manning. "Black insurgency," in Buhle & Dawley (eds.) Working for Democracy (Urbana: U. Illinois, 1985), pp. 125-33.

__________. "Rethinking Black liberation: towards a new protest paradigm," Race & Class 38,4 (4/97):1-14.

__________. "Black fundamentalism: Farrakhan & conservative Black nationalism," Race & Class 39,4 (4/98):1-22.

Meriwether, James H. "African Americans & the Mau Mau Rebellion: militancy, violence & the struggle for freedom," Journal of American Ethnic History 17,4 (sum 98):63-86.

Muwakkil, Salim."All in the family," In These Times (12/25/95). Jesse Jackson.

__________. "Choosing between evils," In These Times (9/2/96). Search for a Black political agenda.

__________. "Deconstructing Blackness," In These Times (6/16/97). Critique of Jim Sleeper & Randall Kennedy, who've argued for "getting beyond" Black identity.

__________. "The big payback," In These Times (6/30/97). Black reparations.

__________. "Roots: the sequel," In These Times (7/14/97). Forthcoming Black Radical Congress (June 1998).

__________. "Letting go of the dream," In These Times (11/2/97). Rejecting ideal of integration.

__________. "Louis Farrakhan's new song," In These Times (4/5/98). Turn from anti-white racism to more orthodox Islam.

Nichols, John. "Cornell West [interview]," Progressive (1/97).

Painter, Nell Irvin. "Malcolm X across the genres," American Historical Review 88,2 (4/93):432-39.

Pérez, Marvette. "Interview with Bernice Johnson Reagon," Radical History Review 68 (spr 97):4-24.

Regna, Stephen P. "Arise ye mighty people! Gender, class & race in popular struggles," Identities 3 (8/96).

Richards, Paul. "W.E.B. DuBois & American social history: evolution of a Marxist," Radical America 4,8-9 (11/70):37-65.

Schultz, John. "An interview with Robert F. Williams," Studies on the Left 2,3 (1962).

Slaughter, Jane. "Henry Louis Gates Jr. [interview]," Progressive (1/98).

Steinberg, Stephen. "Up from slavery: the myth of Black progress," New Politics (sum 98):69-81.

Stephens, Michelle A. "Black transnationalism & the politics of national identity: West Indian intellectuals in Harlem in the age of war & revolution," American Quarterly 50 (1998):592-608.

Taylor, Ulla Y. "'Negro women are great thinkers as well as doers': Amy Jacques-Garvey & community feminism," Journal of Women's History 12 (spr 2000):104-26.

Thomas, Richard. "Blacks & the CIO," in Buhle & Dawley (eds.) Working for Democracy (Urbana: U. Illinois, 1985), pp. 93-100.

Thomas, Tony. "Leninism, Stalinism & Black nationalism," Black Liberation & Socialism (1974):157-76.

Tyson, Timothy. "Robert F. Williams, 'Black Power' & the roots of the African American freedom struggle," Journal of American History 85 (1998):540-70.

Wellman, David. "The new political linguistics of race," Socialist Review 87-88 (5-8/86):43-79.

West, Cornell. "Left strategies: a view from Afro-America," Socialist Review 86 (3-4/86):41-49.

Wicker, Tom. "Deserting the Democrats," Nation (6/17/96). Why Blacks & the poor should do it & found their own party.

Williamson, Arthur. "Lapses of reason," In These Times (3/18/96):16-18. Situates King & Farrakhan in Western intellectual history: Enlightenment vs. Romanticism. "Blood mysticism" of Farrakhan, rising since 60's, has about run its course.

Woodruff, Nan Elizabeth. "African-American struggles for Citizenship in the Arkansas & Mississippi Deltas in the age of Jim Crow," Radical History Review 5 (win 1993):33-52.

In the Library: Non-Fiction Books

Abu-Nimer, Mohammed. Nonviolence & Peace Building in Islam (Gainesville: U. of Florida, 2003).

Alexander, Peter. Racism, Resistance & Revolution (London: Bookmarks, 1987).

America, Richard F. Paying the Social Debt: What White America Owes Black America (Westport CT: Praeger, 1993).

Anner, John (ed.) Beyond Identity Politics: Emerging Social Justice Movements in Communities of Color (Boston, 1996).

Anthony, Earl. Spitting in the Wind: The True Story Behind the Violent Legacy of the Black Panther Party (Santa Monica: Roundtable, 1990).

Baldwin, James. Notes of a Native Son (Boston: Beacon, 1955).

__________. Nobody Knows My Name. More Notes of a Native Son (NY: Dial, 1961).

__________, The Fire Next Time (NY: Dial, 1963).

Baraka, Imamu Amiri. Kawaida Studies: The New Nationalism (Chicago: Third World, 1972).

Boggs, James. Racism & the Class Struggle: Futher Pages from a Black Worker's Notebook (NY: Monthly Review, 1970).

Bond, Julian. A Time to Speak, a Time to Act: The Movement in Politics (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1972).

__________ & Sondra Kathryn Wilson (eds.) Lift Every Voice & Sing: A Celebration of the Negro National Anthem (NY: Random House, 2000).

Breitman, George. Malcolm X, the Man & his Ideas (NY: Pioneer, 1965).

__________. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary (NY: Merit, 1967).

__________ et al. (eds.) The Assassination of Malcolm X (NY: Pathfinder, 1976).

Brown, Kevin. Malcolm X: His Life & Legacy (Brookfield CT: Millbrook, 1995).

Brown, Lloyd L. Stand Up for Freedom: The Negro People vs. the Smith Act (NY: New Century, 1952).

Brown, Tony. Black Lies, White Lies: The Truth According to Tony Brown (NY: Morrow, 1995).

Burns, Stewart (ed.) Daybreak of Freedom: The Montgomery Bus Boycott (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1997).

Carmichael, Stokely & Charles V. Hamilton. Black Power. The Politics of Liberation in America (NY, 1967).

Carson, Clayborne. Malcolm X: the FBI File (NY: Carroll & Graf, 1991).

Chapman, Mark L. Christianity on Trial: African-American Religious Thought before & after Black Power (Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1996).

Carmichael, Stokely. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (NY: Random House, 1967).

__________. Stokely Speaks: Black Power back to Pan-Africanism (NY: Random House, 1971).

__________ with Ekueme Michael Thelwell. Ready for Revolution: The Life & Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (NY: Scribner, 2003).

Childs, John Brown. Leadership, Conflict, & Cooperation in Afro-American Social Thought (?,?).

Chireau, Yvonne & Nathanial Deutsch (eds.) Black Zion: African American Religious Encounters with Judaism (NY: Oxford, 2000).

Cleage, Albert B. The Black Messiah (NY: Sheed & Ward, 1968).

Cleaver, Kathleen & George N. Katsiaficas (eds.) Liberation, Imagination, & the Black Panther Party: A New Look at the Panthers & their Legacy (NY: Routledge, 2001).

Cobb, William Jelani. The Essential Harold Cruse: A Reader (NY?: Palgrave, 2002).

Collins, David R. Malcolm X: Black Rage (NY: Dillon, 1992).

Collins, Rodnell P. Seventh Child: A Family Memoir of Malcolm X (Secaucus NJ: Carol, 1998).

Cruse, Harold. Crisis of the Negro Intellectual: A Historical Analysis of the Failure of Black Leadership (?, 1967).

Draper, Theodore. The Rediscovery of Black Nationalism (London, 1971).

Duberman, Martin. Paul Robeson (NY: Knopf, 1988).

Essien-Udom, E.U. Black Nationalism. A Search for an Identity in America (Chicago, 1962).

Fradin, Dennis Brindell & Judith Bloom Fradin. Ida B. Wells: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement (NY: Clarion, 2000).

Franklin, V.P. et al. (eds.) African Americans & Jews in the 20th C.: Studies in Convergence & Conflict (NY: Columbia U., 1998).

Fraser, George C. Success Runs in Our Race: A Complete Guide to Effective Networking in the Black Community (NY: Amistad, 2004).

Fredrickson, George M. Black Liberation: A Comparative History of Black Ideologies in the US & South Africa (NY, 1995).

Hacker, Andrew. Two Nations, Black & White: Separate, Hostile, Unequal (NY: Ballantine, 1995).

Hall, R.L. Black Separatism & Social Reality (NY: Oxford, 1977).

Halpern, Rick & Roger Horowitz. Meatpackers: An Oral History of Black Packinghouse Workers & their Struggle for Racial & Economic Equality (NY: Monthly Review, 199?).

Hamblin, Ken. Pick a Better Country: An Unassuming Colored Guy Speaks His Mind About America (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1996).

Hamilton, Charles V. (ed.) The Black Experience in American Politics (NY, 1973).

Harding, Vincent. The Other American Revolution (Los Angeles: UCLA, 1980).

__________. There is a River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981).

__________. Hope & History: Why We Must Share the History of the Movement (Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1990).

__________; Robin D.G. Kelley & Earl Lewis. We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970 (NY: Oxford, 1997).

Herndon, Angelo. Let Me Live [1937] (NY: Arno, 1969).

Humphrey, Norman D. & Alfred McClung Lee. Race Riot: A First-Hand Observation of the 1943 Detroit Riots [1943] (NY: Octagon, 1970).

Hutchinson, Earl Ofari. The Myth of Black Capitalism (NY: Monthly Review, 1970).

__________. Let Your Motto Be Resistance: The Life & Thought of Henry Highland Garnet (Boston: Beacon, 1972).

__________. Blacks & Reds: Race & Class in Conflict, 1919-1990 (East Lansing, 1995).

__________. The Assassination of the Black Male Image (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1996).

__________. Betrayed: A History of Presidential Failure to Protect Black Lives (Boulder: Westview, 1996).

__________. Beyond O.J.: Race, Sex, & Class Lessons for America (Los Angeles: Middle Passage, 1996).

__________. The Crisis in Black & Black (Los Angeles: Middle Passage, 1998).

Isaacs, Harold R. The New World of Negro Americans (NY, 1964). On Black American experiences in West Africa.

Jenness, Valerie & Ryken Grattet. Making Hate a Crime. From Social Movement to Law Enforcement (NY, 2001).

Johnson, Ernest H. Brothers on the Mend: Understanding & Healing Anger for African American Men & Women (NY: Pocket, 1995).

Kelley, Robin D.G. Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination (Boston:Beacon, 2002).

_______________. Race Rebels (Boston: Beacon, 1994).
_______________. Hammer & Hoe (Boston:Beacon,1990).

Kenan, Randall. James Baldwin (NY: Chelsea House, 1994).

Lefkowitz, Mary. Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History (NY, 1996).

__________ & Guy MacLean Rogers (eds.) Black Athena Revisited (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1996).

Lipsitz, George. A Life in the Struggle: Ivory Perry & the Culture of Opposition (Philadelphia: Temple, 1995).

Lomax, Louis E. The Negro Revolt (NY: Harper, 1962; rev. ed. 1971).

__________. To Kill a Black Man (Los Angeles: Holloway House, 1968).

Perry, Jeffrey B. (ed.) A Hubert Harrison Reader (Middletown CT: Wesleyan U., 2001). Socialist & later "New Negro" militant, theorist, writer & editor of early 20th c., notable among other things for spirited critiques of Washington, DuBois, Randolph, Garvey & Harlem Renaissance writers.

Marable, Manning. Race, Reform, & Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1960 (Jackson: U. Mississippi, 1984).

__________. Black American Politics: From the Washington Marches to Jesse Jackson (London, 1985).

Marks, Carole. Farewell: We're Good & Gone. The Great Black Migration (Bloomington: U. Indiana, 1989).

Marqusee, Mike. Redemption Song: Muhammad Ali & the Spirit of the Sixties (NY: Verso, 2005).

Marx, Gary T. Protest & Prejudice: A Study of Belief in the Black Community (rev ed.; NY: Harper & Row, 1969).

McAdam, Doug. Political Process & the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970 (Chicago: U. Chicago, 1992).

McClain, Paula D. & Joseph Stewart Jr. "Can We All Get Along?": Racial & Ethnic Minorities in American Politics [1995] (Boulder: Westview, 2002).

McCall, Nathan. Makes Me Wanna Holler: A Young Man in Black America (NY, 1994).

Naison, Mark. Communities in Harlem During the Depression (NY: Grove, 1985).

Newman, Richard. Words Like Freedom: Essays on African-American Culture & History (West Cornwall CT: Locust Hill, 1996).

Okihiro, Gary Y. In Resistance: Studies in African, Caribbean & Afro-American History (Amherst MA, 1986).

Ortiz, Paul. Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden History of Black Organizing & White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction to the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley: U. of California, 2005).

Osofsky, Gilbert. Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto. Negro New York, 1890-1930 (NY: Harper & Row, 1966).

Ottley, Roi. New World A-Coming: Inside Black America (NY: Arno, 1968). Black reporter's story of Blacks in and out of government during the New Deal.

__________ & William J. Weatherby. The Negro in New York: An Informal Social History, 1626-1940 (NY: Praeger, 1969).

Painter, Nell Irvin (ed.) The Narrative of Hosea Hudson: His Life as a Negro Communist in the South (Cambridge MA: Harvard, 1979).

Payne, Charles M. & Adam Green (eds.) Time Longer Than Rope: A Century of African American Activism, 1850-1950 (NY: NYU, 2003).

Peery, Nelson. Black Fire: the Making of an American Revolutionary (NY: New Press, 1994).

Radford-Hill, Sheila. Further to Fly: Black Women & the Politics of Empowerment (Minneapolis: U. Minnesota, 2000).

Reed, Adolph. The Jesse Jackson Phenomenon (New Haven, 1986).

Robbins, Anthony & Joseph McClendon III. Unlimited Power: A Black Choice (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1997).

Robinson, Cedric J. Black Marxism: The Making of a Black Radical Tradition (London: Zed, 1983).

__________. Black Movements in America (NY: Routledge, 1997).

Robinson, James L. Racism or Attitude? The Ongoing Struggle for Black Liberation & Self-Esteem (NY: Insight, 1995).

Robinson, Randall. Defending the Spirit: A Black Life in America (NY: Dutton, 1998). Founder of Trans Africa.

__________. The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks (NY: Dutton, 2000).

__________. The Reckoning: What Blacks Owe to Each Other (NY: Dutton, 2002).

__________. Quitting America: The Departure of a Black Man from His Native Land (NY: Dutton, 20040.

Shabazz, Ilyasah with Kim McLarin. Growing Up X (NY: Ballantine, 2002). Malcolm's daughter.

Sims, Patsy. Cleveland Benjamin's Dead: A Struggle for Dignity in the Louisiana Cane Country (Athens GA: U. Georgia, 1994).

Skrentny, John D. The Minority Rights Revolution (Cambridge MA: Belknap, 2002).

Spear, Allan H. Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto, 1890-1920 (Chicago: U. Chicago, 1968).

Spencer, Jon Michael. The New Colored People. The Mixed-Race Movement in America (NY: NYU, 1997).

Stack, Carol. Call to Home. African Americans Reclaim the Rural South (NY, 1996).

Staples, Brent. Parallel Lives: Growing Up Black & White (NY: Pantheon, 1994).

Stein, Judith. The World of Marcus Garvey: Race & Class in Modern Society (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State U., 1986).

Steinberg, Stephen. Turning Back: The Retreat from Racial Justice in American Thought & Policy (Boston, 1995).

Sternsher, Bernard (ed.). The Negro in Depression & War. Prelude to Revolution, 1930-1945 (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1970).

Sullivan, Patricia. Days of Hope: Race & Democracy in the New Deal Era (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1996).

Takaki, Ronald T. Violence in the Black Imagination: Essays & Documents [1972] (rev. ed. NY: Oxford, 1993).

Trotter, Joe William Jr. River Jordan: African American Urban Life in the Ohio Valley (Lexington KY: U. Kentucky, 1998).

Tyson, Timothy B. Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams & the Roots of Black Power (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1999).

Vincent, Ted. Black Power & the Garvey Movement (NY, 1970).

__________. Keep Cool: the Black Activists Who Built the Jazz Age (London: Pluto, 1995).

Walker, Alice. Anything We Love Can Be Save: A Writer's Activism (NY, 1997).

Ward, Brian. Media, Culture & the Modern African American Freedom Struggle (Gainesville: U. Florida, 2001).

Weisbord, Robert G. Ebony Kinship: Africa, Africans & the Afro-American (Westport CT, 1974).

Williams, Armstrong. Beyond Blame: How We Can Succeed by Breaking the Dependency Barrier (NY: Free Press, 1995).

Wilson, Carter A. Racism: From Slavery to Advanced Capitalism (Thousand Oaks CA: Sage, 1996).

Winston, James. Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early 20th-C. America (NY: Verso, 1998).

Wolters, Raymond. The New Negro on Campus. Black College Rebellions of the 1920s (Princeton: Princeton U., 1975).

Wood, Richard L. Faith in Action: Religion, Race, & Democratic Organizing in America (Chicago: U. Chicago, 2002).

Woodard, Komozi. A Nation within a Nation. Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) & Black Power Politics (Chapel Hil: U North Carolinal, 1998).

Woods, Clyde. Development Arrested: The Blues & Plantation Power in the Mississippi Delta (London: Verso, 1998).\

Wright, W.D. Racism Matters (Westport CT: Praeger, 1998).

X, Malcolm. The Autobiography of Malcolm X [1965] (NY: Ballantine, 1992).

In the Library: Fiction

Robinson, Randall. The Emancipation of Wakefield Clay: A Novel (London: Bogle-L'Ouverture, 1978).

In the Library: For Young Readers

In the Library: Poetry

Maya Angelou, "And Still I Rise," in her (?, 1978).

In the Library: Drama

Baldwin, James. Blues for Mister Charlie (NY: Dial, 1964).

Smith, Anna Deveare. Fires in the Mirror (NY, 1993). One-woman play about the confrontation between Blacks & Hasidim in Brooklyn's Crown Heights.

In the Library: Photography

Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs (NY: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1993).

CD & Audio

"Like a King," "How Many Miles Must We March?" & "I'll Rise" on Ben Harper's Welcome to the Cruel World, EMI Virgin Music.

Film & Video

"A. Philip Randolph: For Jobs & Freedom" [1996], dir. Dante James, 86m.

"Cousin Bobby" [1992], dir. Jonathan Demme, 70m. In video stores. Racial injustice & Black Panthers in Jersey City, seen through eyes of a white sympathizer.

"Death of a Prophet: The Last Days of Malcolm X" [1991], dir. Woodie King Jr., 60m. From Essenay Entertainment.

"Malcolm X" [1972], dir. Arnold Perl, 91m. In video stores.

"Malcolm X" [1992], dir. Spike Lee, 202m. In video stores.

"Malcolm X: Make it Plain" [1994], dir. Orlando Bagwell, 150m.

"Marcus Garvey: Look for Me in the Whirlwind" [2000], dir. Stanley Nelson, ?m. "Back to Africa" movement of 1920s.

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