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Brazil: Black History, Life & Values

(see also Brazil, Brazil: Northeast, Brazil: Church & Society, Brazil: Military Regime & Brazil since 1985)

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On the Web: Articles

Affirmative Action Debate Forces Brazil to Take a Look in the Mirror. Jon Jeter, Washington Post (6/16/03).

Affirmative Action Debate Grips Brazil. Patrice M. Jones, Detroit Free Press (1/2/02).

On the Web: Specialized Sites

In the Library: Articles

Adamo, Sam. "Race & povo," in Conniff & McCann (eds.) Modern Brazil (Lincoln: U. Nebraska, 1989), pp. 192-206.

Andrews, George Reid. "Brazilian racial democracy, 1900-1990: an American counterpart," Journal of Contemporary History 31 (1996):483-508.

Anon. "What color are you?" in Levine & Crocitti (eds.) The Brazil Reader (Durham: Duke, 1999), pp. 386-90.

Bastide, Roger. "El positivismo brasileño y la incorporación del proletariado de color a la civilización occidental," Revista Mexicana de Sociología (9-12/46):371-88.

__________. "Race relations in Brazil: São Paulo," UNESCO Courier 5,8-9 (1952).

__________. "Race relations in Brazil," International Social Science Bulletin 9 (1957):495-512.

__________. "The development of race relations in Brazil," in Guy Hunter (ed.) Industrialization & Race Relations: A Symposium (London, 1965), pp. 9-29.

__________. "Color, racism & Christianity," Daedalus (spr 1967):312-27.

Bretas, Marcos Luiz. "A queda do Imperio da Navalha e da Rasteira: a República e os capoeiras," Estudos Afro-Asiáticos 20 (1991):239-56.

__________. "Slaves, free poor, & policemen: Brazil," in Emsley & Knafla (eds.) Crime Histories & Histories of Crime (Westport CT, 1996), pp. 253-70.

Butler, Kim D. "Up from slavery: Afro-Brazilian activism in São Paulo, Brazil, 1888-1938," The Americas 49,2 (10/92):179-206.

Chvaicer, Maya Talmon. "The criminalization of capoeira in 19th-c. Brazil," Hispanic American Historical Review 82,3 (8/02):525-48.

Corwin, Arthur F. "Afro-Brazilians: myths & realities," in R. Toplin (ed.) Slavery & Race Relations in Latin America (Westport CT: Greenwood, 1974), pp. 385-438.

Davila, Jerry. "Expanding perspectives on race in Brazil," Latin American Research Review 35,3 (2000):188-98.

__________. "Norma Fraga: race, class, education & the Estado Novo," in P. Beattie (ed.) The Human Tradition in Modern Brazil (Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2004), pp. 165-82.

Doria, Carlos Alberto. "Los dioses más fuertes," Cristianismo y Sociedad 75 (1983):31-38. On a Black Brazilian liberation movement.

Dossar, Kenneth. "Capoeira Angola: an ancestral connection," American Visions 3,4 (8/88):39-42.

Eads, J.K. "The Negro in Brazil," Journal of Negro History 21,4 (10/36):365-765.

Fernandes, Florestão. "Beyond poverty: the Negro & the mulatto in Brazil," in R. Toplin (ed.) Slavery & Race Relations in Latin America (Westport CT: Greenwood, 1974), pp. 277-98.

__________. "The Negro in Brazilian society, 25 yrs. later," in Margolis & Carter (eds.) Brazil: Anthropological Perspectives (NY, 1979).

Frazier, E. Franklin. "A comparison of Negro-White relations in Brazil & the US," in G. Franklin Edwards (ed.) E. Franklin Frazier on Race Relations (Chicago: U. Chicago, 1968), pp. 82-102.

García-Zamor, Jean-Claude. "Social mobility of Negroes in Brazil," Journal of Inter-American Studies & World Affairs 12,2 (1970):242-53.

Hammond, Harley Ross. "Race, social mobility & politics in Brazil," Race 4 (1962):477-.

Lesser, Jeff H. "Are African-Americans African or American? Brazilian immigration policy in the 1920s," Review of Latin American Studies 4,1-2 (1991):115-37.

Levine, Robert. "The first Afro-Brazilian Congress: opportunities for the study of race in the Brazilian Northeast," Race 15,2 (10/73).

Lovell, Peggy A. "Race, gender & development in Brazil," Latin American Research Review 29,3 (1994):7-35.

Maio, Marcos Chor. "UNESCO & the study of race relations in Brazil: regional or national issue?" Latin American Research Review 36,2 (2001):118-36.

Meade, Teresa & Gregory Alonso Pirio. "In search of the Afro-American 'El Dorado': attempts by North American Blacks to enter Brazil in the 1920s," Luso-Brazilian Review 25 (sum 88):85-110.

Morse, Richard. "The Negro in São Paulo, Brazil," Journal of Negro History 38 (1953):290-306.

Naro, Nancy Priscilla. "The transition from slavery to migrant labour in rural Brazil," in P.E. Lovejoy & N. Rogers (eds.) Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World (Ilford, 1994), pp. 183-96.

Nascimento, Abdias do. "African culture in Brazilian art," Journal of Black Studies 8 (1978).

__________. "Reflections of an Afro-Brazilian," Journal of Negro History 64,3 (sum 79):274-82.

__________. "The myth of racial democracy," in Levine & Crocitti (eds.) The Brazil Reader (Durham NC: Duke, 1999), pp. 379-81.

Pinto, L.A. da Costa. "Race relations in Brazil: Rio de Janeiro," UNESCO Courier 5,8-9 (1952).

Reeve, R. Penn. "Race & social mobility in a Brazilian industrial town," Luso-Brazilian Review 14,2 (win 77):236-53.

Rose, R.S. "Slavery in Brazil: does it still exist?" Review of Latin American Studies 4,1 (1991):96-114.

Rout, Leslie B. "Sleight of hand: Brazilian & American authors manipulate the Brazilian racial situation," The Americas 29,4 (4/73).

__________. "Race relations in southern Brazil: the Porto Alegre experience," Proceedings of the Pacific Coast Conference on Latin American Studies 4 (1975):89-100.

__________. "Brazil: study in Black, Brown & Beige," in Levine & Crocitti (dds.) The Brazilian Reader (Durham NC: 1999), pp. 367-73.

Russell-Wood, A.J.R. "Race & class in Brazil, 1937-1967: a reassessment," Race 10,2 (1968).

Sanjek, Roger. "Brazilian racial terms: some aspects of meaning & learning," American Anthropologist 73 (10/71):1126-43.

Saunders, John. "Class, Color & prejudice: a Brazilian counterpoint," in J.Q. Cambell (ed.) Racial Tension & National Identity (Nashville, 1971).

Scott, Rebecca J. "Defining the boundaries of freedom in the world of cane: Cuba, Brazil & Louisiana after emancipation," American Historical Review 99 (2/94):70-102.

Skidmore, Thomas E. "Race & class in Brazil: historical perspectives," Luso-Brazilian Review 20,1 (sum 83):104-18.

Telles, Edward E. "Racial distance & region in Brazil: intermarriage in Brazilian urban areas," Latin American Research Review 28,2 (1993):141-62.

Trochim, Michael. "The Brazilian Black Guard: racial conflict in post-Abolition Brazil," The Americas 44 (1/88):285-300.

In the Library: Non-Fiction Books

Almeida, Bira. Capoeira: a Brazilian Art Form (Detroit: Blaine Ethridge, 198?).

Alves, Rodrigues. A ecologia do grupo afro-brasileiro (Brasília, 1966).

Andrews, George Reid. Blacks & Whites in São Paulo, Brazil, 1888-1988 (Madison: U. Wisconsin, 1991).

Azevedo, Célia Marinho de. Onda negra, medo branco (Rio de Janeiro, 1987).

Bastide, Roger e Florestan Fernandes. Brancos e negros em São Paulo (São Paulo, 1959).

__________. The African Religions of Brazil: Towards a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations [1960] (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1978). Brilliant, wide-ranging early examination of Brazilian Black history & race relations by French anthropologist influential in establishment of Brazilian social science.

__________. O negro na imprensa e na literatura (São Paulo, 1972).

__________. Estudos afro-brasileiros (São Paulo, 1973).

Brookshaw, David. Race & Color in Brazilian Literature (London, 1986).

Burdick, John. Blessed Anastácia: Women, Race, & Popular Christianity in Brazil (NY: Routledge, 1998).

Butler, Kim D. Freedoms Given, Freedoms Won: Afro-Brazilians in Post-Abolition São Paulo & Salvador (Piscataway NJ, 1998).

Capoeira, Nestor. The Little Capoeira Book (Berkeley, 1995).

Cardoso, Fernando Henrique e Octávio Ianni. Cor e mobilidade social em Florianópolis (São Paulo, 1960).

Crook, Larry & Randal Johnson (eds.) Black Brazil: Culture, Identity, & Social Mobilization (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center, 2000).

da Mota, Roberto (ed.) Os afro-brasileiros (Recife, 1985).

Davis, Darien J. Afro-Brazilians: Time for Recognition (London: Minority Rights Group, 1999).

Dzidzienyo, Anani & Lourdes Casal. The Position of Blacks in Brazilian & Cuban Society (London: Minority Rights Group, 1979).

Eduardo, Octavio da Costa. The Negro in Northern Brazil: A Study in Acculturation [1940] (Seattle, 1948).

Fernandes, Florestão. The Negro in Brazilian Society (A integração do negro na sociedade de clases do Brazil [1965] (trans. Jacqueline D. Kiles, A. Brunel Y& Arthur Rothwell; NY: Columbia U., 1969).

__________. O negro no mundo dos brancos (São Paulo, 1972).

Fontaine, Pierre-Michel (ed.) Race, Class & Power in Brazil (Los Angeles, 1985).

Fryer, Peter. Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil (Hanover NH: U. Press of New England, 2000).

Haberly, David T. Three Sad Races: Racial Identity & National Consciousness in Brazilian Literature (NY: Cambridge, 1983).

Hanchard, Michael George. Orpheus & Power: The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro & São Paulo, Brazil, 1945-1988 (Princeton: Princeton U, 1994).

Harding, Rachel E. A Refuge in Thunder: Candomblé & Alternative Spaces of Blackness (Bloomington: Indiana U, 2000).

Hassenbalg, Carlos Alfredo. Race Relations in Post-Abolition Brazil (Berkeley, 1979).

Hellwig, David J. African-American Reflections on Brazil's Racial Paradise (Philadelphia: Temple, 1992).

Huggins, Martha Knisely. From Slavery to Vagrancy in Brazil: Crime & Social Control in the Third World (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers, 1985).

Hutchinson, Harry W. Village & Plantation Life in Northeastern Brazil (Seattle, 1957).

Kraay, Hendrik, Afro-Brazilian Culture and Politics: Bahia, 1790s to 1990s (Armonk NY: ME Sharp, 1998).

Marotti, Giorgio. Black Characters in the Brazilian Novel (Berkeley, 1987).

Marx, Anthony W. Making Race & Nation: A Comparison of the US, Brazil & South Africa (NY: Cambridge, 1998).

Nascimento, Abdías do. O negro revoltado (Rio de Janeiro, 1968).

__________. "Racial Democracy" in Brazil: Myth or Reality? (Ibadan, 1977).

__________. Brazil: Mixture or Massacre? (Dover MA, 1979).

Pereira, João Batista Borges. Cor, profissão e mobilidade: o negro e o radio de São Paulo (São Paulo, 1967).

Rabassa, Gregory. O negro na ficçcão brasileira: meio século de história literaria [1954] (Rio de Janeiro, 1964).

Ramos, Arthur. The Negro in Brazil [193?] (Washington, 1951).

Ribeiro, René. Negros no Brazil: religião, medicina e magia (São Paulo, 1971).

Rodrígues, José Honório. Brazil & Africa (Berkeley: U. California, 1965).

Sansone, Livio. Blackness without Ethnicity: Constructing Race in Brazil (NY: Palgrave/MacMillan, 2003).

Sayers, Raymond S. The Negro in Brazilian Literature (NY: Hispanic Institute, 1956).

Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. The Spectacle of the Races: Scientists, Institutions & the Race Question in Brazil, 1870-1930 [1993] (NY, 1998).

Skidmore, Thomas. Black into White: Race & Nationality in Brazilian Thought (NY: Oxford, 1974).

Stam, Robert. Tropical Multiculturalism: A Comparative History of Race in Brazilian Cinema & Culture (Durham NC: Duke, 1997).

Toplin, Robert B. Freedom & Prejudice: The Legacy of Slavery in the US & Brazil (Westport CT: Greenwood, 1981).

Twine, France Winddance. Racism in a Racial Democracy: the Maintainance of White Supremacy in Brazil (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers, 1998).

Vianna, Hermano. The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music & National Identity in Brazil (O mistério do samba) [1995] (trans. John Chasteen; Chapel Hill: U. of North Carolina, 1999).

Wagley, Charles (ed.) Race & Class in Rural Brazil (Paris: UNESCO, 1952).

In the Library: Fiction

Azevedo, Aluízio de. O mulato [1881] (São Paulo: Atica, 1996).

Amado, Jorge. Jubiabá [1935] (trans. Margaret A. Neves; NY: Avon, 1984).

__________. (Sea of the Dead (Mar morto) [1936] (Boston: Houghton & Mifflin, 1942).

__________. Captains of the Sands (Capitães da areia) [1937] (trans. Gregory Rabassa; NY: Avon, 1988).

__________. Shepherds of the Night (Os pastores da noite) [1964] (NY: Knopf, 1967).

Camargo, Oswaldo de. A descoberta do frio: novela (São Paulo: Populares, 1979).

Caminha, Adolfo. Bom Crioulo: The Back Man & the Cabin Boy (Bom-Crioulo) [1897] (San Francisco: Gay Sunshine, 1982).

Coutinho, Edilberto. Bye Bye Soccer (Maracanã adeus: onze histórias de futebol) [1980] (trans. Wilson Loria; Austin TX: Host, 1994).

Aguiar Filho, Adonias [Adonias Filho. Corpo vivo (Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1962).

__________. O forte (Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1965).

__________. Luanda Beira Bahia (Lisboa: Difel, 1983).

Fontes, Armando. Os corumbas (Rio de Janeiro: Schmidt, 1933).

Gleason, Judith. Agotime: Her Legend (NY: Grossman, 1970).

Guimarães, Bernardo. A escrava Isaura [1872] (São Paulo; Melhoramentos, 1966).

Montello, Josué. Os tambores de São Luis [1985]

Rego, Jose Lins do. Plantation Boy (Menino de engenho) [1938] (trans. Emmi Baum; NY: Knopf, 1966).

Ribeiro, João Ubaldo. An Invincible Memory (Viva o povo brasileiro)[1984] (trans. by author; NY: Harper & Row, 1989).

In the Library: For Young Readers

In the Library: Poetry

In the Library: Drama

In the Library: Photography

CD & Audio

Film & Video

"Abolição" [1988], dir. Sozimo Bulbul, 150m. From Artmattan Productions. Stunning documentary on contemporary Black Brazilian life.

"Black Orpheus" [1959], dir. Marcel Camus, 100m. In video stores. Greek myth reenacted at Carnival time in favelas of Rio de Janeiro.

"Black Women of Brazil (Mulheres negras)" [1986], dir. Silvana Afram, 25m. From Women Make Movies.

"Denying Brazil" [2000], dir. Joel Zito Araujo, 92m. From Artmattan Productions. Documentary on race relations in Brazilian soap operas.

"The Exception & the Rule" [1997], 38m. From Artmattan Productions. Racially-motivated firing, judicial process & reinstatement of a Black Brazilian worker.

"I Was Born a Black Woman (Nasci mulher negra)" [2000], dir. Maria Luisa Mendonça & Vicente Franco, 44m. Benedita da Silva, first Afro-Brazilian woman Senator.

"Macumba, Trance & Spirit Healing" [1985], dir. Madeleine Richeport, 43m. From Filmakers' Library.

"Madame Satã" [2002], dir. Karim Ainouz, 105m. Fascinating true story of 1930s Black ex-bandit & convict who achieves success as a transvestite performer in Rio de Janeiro.

"Natal da Portela" [1988], dir. Paulo Cezar Saraceni, 100m. From Artmattan Productions. Story of organizer of first escola de samba in favelas of Rio de Janeiro.

"Odo Yá" [1997], dir. Tania Cypriano, 58m. From Filmakers' Library. Candomblé as source of strength for AIDS sufferers.

"Pierre Fatumbi Verger: Messenger Between Two Worlds (Pierre Fatumbi Verger: Mensageiro
entre dois mundos)" [1998], dir. Luiz Buarque de Hollanda, 90m. From Latin American Video Archives. Documentary on great French scholar of connections between Yoruba Fon regions of West Africa & Black Brazil.

"Jubiabá" [1987], dir. Nelson Pereira dos Santos, 100m.

"The Spirit of Samba: Black Music of Brazil" [1982], dir. ?, 60m.

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