Home > Resources > Countries & Regions > Colombia: Drug Wars 1980-2000

Colombia: Drug Wars 1980-2000

(see also Colombia, Colombia: Violencia to 1980, Colombia: Black History, Life & Values, & Colombia: Amazon Region)

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CIA World Factbook. Includes map.

New Internationalist Profile.

UN Development Program, Human Development Indicators.

World Guide.

On the Web: Articles

On the Web: Specialized Sites

Amnesty International Reports on Colombia.

Asamblea Permanente de la Sociedad Civil por la Paz (Bogotá). Useful daily bulletins in Spanish on process of peace & war.

Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) (Principal paramilitary group, with close ties to army).

Colombia Human Rights Network (Links to week-by-week news summaries for 2003).

Colombia Labor Monitor (Tracks persecution & systematic assassination of trade union leaders).

Colombia Project (Center for International Policy).

Colombia Report (excellent critical analysis by Gary Leech of "Plan Colombia" as of 7/00).

Colombia Solidarity Campaign (UK).

Consultoría para los Derechos Humanos y el Desplazamiento (CODHES) (Leading Colombian human rights organization).

Desde Abajo.

Drug Policy Alliance (Critical analysis & news updates on "war on drugs" in Colombia).

Earthjustice (Best source for aerial fumigation of coca producing areas).

Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Colombia (ELN) (Smaller of two leading guerrilla armies fighting since mid-1960s).

Foreign Policy in Focus (Drug Policy & Colombia).

Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) (Larger of two leading guerrilla armies fighting since mid-1960s).

Fundación Ideas para la Paz.

Global Exchange.

Human Rights Watch Colombia Page.

Ibermundo Colombia.

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights Colombia Page.

Latin American Working Group (LAWG).

Mama Coca (Online journal exploring drug trade & its implications for Colombia & the Americas).

National Security Archive: War in Colombia, 1988-2002. Key US government documents.

Medios para la Paz. Periodistas colombianos por la construcción de una cultura de paz.

New Colombia News Agency.

Noticia Independiente Colombia.

Planeta Paz.

Radio Caracol (Colombian news radio).

US Committee for Refugees Colombia Page.

US State Department Report to Congress on Certain Counternarcotics Activities in Colombia (4/14/03). Lists private contractors to military, responsibilities & amounts paid to them in 2003.

Via Alterna.

Washington Office on Latin America.

Women Against the War. Colombian group inspired by FARC's kidnapping of Green Party presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt.

ZNet Colombia Page. Excellent source for current commentary in English

In the Library: Articles

Abel, C. "Colombia & the drugs barons: conflict & containment," World Today 49 (may 1993):96-100.

Andreas, Peter. "Profits, poverty, & illegality: the logic of drug corruption," NACLA Report 27,3 (11-12/93):22-27.

Anon. "Stop the war on Colombia," Progressive (9/99):8-9.

__________. "In the batallion: a soldier speaks," NACLA Report 34,2 (9-10/00). Interview.

Archilla, Mauricio. "Lisístrata , o mujeres colombianas en búsqueda de la paz," in L. Gabriela (ed.) La Crisis Socio-Política Colombiana: Un Análisis No Coyuntural de la Coyuntura (Bogotá, 1997).

Bagley, Bruce. "Colombia & the war on drugs," Foreign Affairs (fall 1988). Useful for comparing antinarcotics programs of 1980s and today.

Boswell, Tom. "Apartadó, Colombia," América 176,14 (4/26/97):6-10.

Bouden, LawreBacon, David. "The most dangerous place to join a Union," Progressive (11/03):29-30.nce. "Guerrillas & the State: the role of the State in the Colombian peace process," Journal of Latin American Studies 28 (1996):279-97.

Carrigan, Ana. "A chronicle of death foretold: state-sponsored violence in Colombia," NACLA Report 28,5 (3-4/95):6-10.

__________. "An unlikely hero: Valdivieso's crusade against drug corruption," NACLA Report 1 (7-8/96):6-10.

__________. "Colombia's best chance," Nation (2/8/99):4-5. Update on peace process.

__________. "Colombia's best hope," Nation (9/6/99):5.

__________. "Drug warriors," In These Times (2/21/00):4.

Castillo, Fabio. "The unpublished war," Index on Censorship 29,1 (1-2/00): 128-31. On the impact of Colombia's media conglomerates on news reporting.

Chernick, Marc. "Colombia: debating the relevance of the armed struggle," NACLA Report 27,4 (1-2/94):8-14.

__________. "The paramilitarization of the war in Colombia," NACLA Report 31,5 (1998):28-33.

Collazos, Oscar. "Funeral of laughter," Index on Censorship 29,1 (1-2/00): 134-36. On the murder of beloved political satirist & comedian Jaime Garzón.

Craig, Richard. "Colombian narcotics & US-Colombian relations," Journal of Inter-American Studies & World Affairs 23 (1981), pp. 243-70.

Deas, Malcolm. "An empty horizon," Index on Censorship 29,1 (1-2/00): 116-22. Commentary on contemporary society & politics.

Del Olmo, Rosa. "Aerobiology & the war on drugs: a transnational crime," Crime & Social Justice 30 (1988).

Doyle, Kate. "Drug war: a quietly escalating failure," NACLA Report 26,5 (5/93):29-34.

Dugas, John C. "Drugs, lies, & audiotape: the Samper crisis in Colombia," Latin American Research Review 36,3 (2001):157-74.

Farah, Douglas. "Staunch foe of traffickers wins primary," Wash Post (3/19/90).

__________. "Leftist politician killed in Colombia," Wash Post (3/23/90). Murder of presidential candidate Bernardo Jaramillo Ossa.

__________. "Ex-guerrilla in Colombia's spotlight," Wash Post (6/2/90). On campaign for of ex-guerrillero Antonio Navarro Wolff.

__________. "U.S. aid in limbo as Colombian Army fails to provide evidence on rights abuses," Wash Post (1/10/98).

__________ & Dana Priest. "US force training troops in Colombia," Wash Post (5/25/98).

__________. "Colombia," in Gutman & Reiff (eds.) Crimes of War (NY, 1999), pp. 92-96.

__________. "US widens Colombia counter-drug efforts. Restrictions loosened on data sharing," Wash Post (7/10/99).

Filippone, Robert. "The Medellín cartel: why we can't win the drug war," Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 17,4 (10-12/94):323-45.

Gold-Bliss, Michael. "Colombia: understanding recent democratic transformations in a violent polity," Latin American Research Review 28,1 (1993):235-47.

Gorostiaga, Javier. "Colombia, geopolitics & liberation theology," LADOC 4,2 (apr 1989):20-30.

Guillermoprieto, Alma. "Letter from Bogotá," New Yorker (10/16/89):112-23.

__________. "Letter from Medellín," New Yorker (4/22/91):96-116.

__________. "Exit el patrón," New Yorker (10/25/93):72-85. Imprisoned drug lord Pablo Escobar.

__________. "Our new war in Colombia. Clinton proposes an increase in foreign aid to fight drugs," New York Review of Books (4/13/00) & in her Looking for History (NY: Vintage, 2001).

__________. "Colombia: violence without end?" New York Review of Books (4/27/00) & in her Looking for History (NY: Vintage, 2001).

__________. "The children's war,"New York Review of Books (5/11/00):37-41 & in her Looking for History (NY: Vintage, 2001).

__________. "Waiting for war," New Yorker (5/13/02):48-55.

Heinz, Wolfgang. "Guerrillas, political violence, & the peace process in Colombia," Latin American Research Review 24,3 (1989):249-58.

Isikoff, Michael. "Drug plan allows use of military," Wash Post (9/10/89). The idea's been around a long time!

Justice, James J. "Colombia's counter drug force," Rotor & Wing 34,7 (jul 2000).

Lazare, Daniel. "Drugs & money," NACLA Report 30,6 (5-6/97):37-45.

Lernoux, Penny. "A society torn apart by violence: Colombia's ‘dirty war’," Nation (11/7/87).

__________. "A country under siege: Colombia can't kick drugs alone," Nation (3/5/88).

Lloyd, Robin. "Caught in the crossfire. Women are taking a stand in Colombia's struggle between corruption & justice," Drug Policy Letter 35, 19-20 (win 98).

López, Michael. "Irregular forces, irregular acts: the US & its counter-insurgency operations in Colombia," Colombia Bulletin 3,2 (1998):16-23.

Matthews, A.J. & O. Portilla. "Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention," Oil & Gas Journal 92 (5/16/94):66-69.

McGettigan, C.K & D.G. Hunt. "Colombia continues to yield major oil, gas discoveries," Oil & Gas Journal 94 (7/15/96):40-45.

Méndez, Norma Villarreal. "Mujeres y madres en la ruta por la paz," in L. Gabriela (ed.) La Crisis Socio-Política Colombiana: Un Análisis No Coyuntural de la Coyuntura (Bogotá, 1997), pp. 263-97.

Mitchell, Chip. "Down the river in Colombia. It's hard to tell the good guys from the bad," Progressive (4/00). Report from bloodied Barrancabermeja on middle Rio Magdalena.

Molano, Alfredo. "The banishing," Index on Censorship 29,1 (1-2/00):149-55.

__________. "The evolution of the FARC," NACLA Report 34,2 (9-10/00).

Montoya Gómez, Alvaro. "I drown in silence," Index on Censorship 29,1 (1-2/00): 137-38. On the impossibility of practicing journalism in the face of death threats.

Moyano, María Elena. "Women's tragic encounters with the Left," NACLA Report 25,5 (1992):30-34.

Murillo, Mario & Victoria Maldonado. "Raul Reyes: guerrilla spokesperson [interview]," NACLA Report 31,1 (7-8/97):23-5.

__________. "Guerrilla offensive rocks Colombia as new President promises peace," NACLA Report 32,2 (9-10/98)1-2.

NACLA Report 34,2 (9-10/00). Special issue: "Colombia: Old Wars, New Guns."

Perea Restrepo, Carlos María. "Amapola, campesinos y glisofato," Análisis Político (Bogotá) 25 (5-8/95):101-18. Ethnography of drug production.

Pilger, John. "Phony war: the US is planning a massive intervention in Colombia under the pretext of fighting the 'narco-guerrilla'," Guardian (10/19/99).

Pizarro Leongómez, Eduardo. "Clouds over Colombia," NACLA Report 33,2 (9-19/99):6-9. Bracing for US intervention.

Premo, Daniel L."Colombia: cool friendship," in R. Wesson (ed.) US Influence in Latin America in the 1980s (NY, 1982).

__________. "Coping with insurgency: the politics of pacification in Colombia & Venezuela," in D.L. Herman (ed.) Democracy in Latin America: Colombia & Venezuela (NY, 1988).

Press, Eyal. "Escalating the drug war. Clinton pushes military aid," Progressive (2/97):20-27.

Richani, Nazih. "The political economy of violence: the war system in Colombia," Journal of Inter-American Studies 39,2 (sum 97):

__________. "The paramilitary connection," NACLA Report 34,2 (9-10/00). Background & connection to Colombian Armed forces of paramilitaries.

Rohter, Larry. "With US training, Colombia melds war on rebels & drugs," NY Times (7/28/99).

Roldán, Mary. "Colombia: cocaine & the ‘miracle’ of modernity in Medellín," in P. Gootenberg (ed.) Cocaine: Global Histories (London, 1999), pp. 165-82.

Rosenberg, Tina. "Colombia: murder city," Atlantic Monthly (11/88):21-30.

Salazar, Alonzo. "Young assassins of the drug trade," NACLA Report 27,6 (5-6/94):24-28.

Scott, Peter Dale. "Colombia: Washington's dirtiest ‘war on drugs’," Tikkun 12,3 (5-6/97):27-32.

Semple, Kirk. "Putumayo dispatch: aid & discomfort," New Republic (5/15/00).

Shifter, M. "Colombia on the brink. There goes the neighborhood," Foreign Affairs 78 (7-8/99):14-20.

__________. "Colombia at war," Current History 98 (3/99):116-21.

Smyth, Frank. "Still seeing red. The CIA fosters death squads in Colombia," Progressive (6/98).

Steiner, Roberto. "Colombia's income from the drug trade," World Development 26,6 (1998):1013-31.

Stewart, Sarah. "No Pablo, no story," New Internationalist (6/94):20-22. Human rights violations by government & paramilitary forces.

Swift, Richard. "Manuel Patarroyo (interview)," New Internationalist (11/95):31. Colombian scientist who developed a successful anti-malarial vaccine, refused to make money from it & turned the patent over to the World Health Organization for free.

Tokatlian, Juan Gabriel. "La polémica sobre la legalización de drogas en Colombia: el Presidente Samper y los Estados Unidos," Latrin American Research Review 35,1 (2000):37-83.

Thoumi, F.E. "Why the illegal psychoactive drugs industry grew in Colombia," Journal of Interamerican Studies & World Affairs 34 (fall 1992):37-63.

Toro, Juan Pablo. “Columbia deploys peasant soldiers,” San Jose Mercury (6/17/03):11A.

Vargas Meza, Ricardo. "The FARC, the war and the crisis of the state," NACLA Report 31,5 (3-4/98):22-28.

__________. "A military-paramilitary alliance besieges Colombia," NACLA Report 32,3 (11-12/98):25-27.

Wiener, R. "War by other means: Colombia's faceless courts," NACLA Report 30,2 (9-10/96):31-36.

Youngers, Colleta. "’The only war we've got’: drug enforcement in Latin America," NACLA Report 31,2 (9-10/97):13-18.

__________ and Laurie Freeman. "Coca Eradication Efforts in Colombia." WOLA Briefing Series: Issues in International Drug Policy (Washington, 1998).

Zirnite, Peter. "Washington's addiction to the war on drugs," NACLA Report 32,3 (11-12/98):28-30.

In the Library: Non-Fiction Books

Alape, Arturo. La paz, la violencia: testigos de excepción. Hechos y testimonios sobre 40 años de violencia y paz que vuelven a ser hoy de palpitante actualidad(Bogotá: Planeta, 1985).

__________. Las vidas de Pedro Antonio Marín Manuel Marulanda Vélez Tirofijo (Bogotá: Planeta, 1989).

Americas Watch. Human Rights in the Two Colombias: Functioning Democracy, Militarized Society (NY, 1982).

__________. The "MAS Case" in Colombia: Taking on the Death Squads (NY, 1983).

__________. The Central-Americanization of Colombia? Human Rights & the Peace Process (NY, 1986).

__________. Human Rights in Colombia as President Barco Begins (Washington, 1986).

__________. The Killings in Colombia (NY, 1989).

__________. The Drug War in Colombia: The Neglected Tragedy of Political Violence (Washington, 1990).

Arango, Carlos Z. FARC: veinte años de Marquetalia a La Uribe (Bogotá: Aurora, 1984).

Aranguren Molina, Mauricio. Mi confesión: Carlos Castaño revela sus secretos (Bogotá: Oveja Negra, 2001).

Arregi, Ion. Colombia: un pueblo sentenciado a muerte (San Sebastián: Tercera Prensa, 1998).

Asencio, Diego & Nancy Asencio with Ron Tobias. Our Man is Inside (Boston: Little, Brown, 1983). M-19 guerrilla.

Behar, Olga. Las guerras de la paz (Bogotá: Planeta, 1985).

Bergquist, Charles W.; Ricardo Peñaranda & Gonzalo G. Sánchez (eds.) Violence in Colombia: The Contemporary Crisis in Historical Perspective (Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 1992).

__________. Violence in Colombia, 1990-2000. Waging War & Negotiating Peace (Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2001).

Betancur, Belisario. Conflicto y contexto: resolución alternativa de conflictos y contexto social (Bogotá: TM, 1997).

Betancourt, Ingrid. Until Death Do Us Part: My Struggle to Reclaim Colombia (Rage au coeur) (trans. Steven Rendall; NY: HarperCollins, 2002). Memoir of 90s by Colombian Green politician, senator, presidential candidate & long-time hostage of FARC, written before her kidnapping.

Betancurt, Darío y Martha L. García. Contrabandistas, marimberos y mafiosos: historia social de la Mafia colombiana (1965-1992) (Bogotá: TM, 1994).

Bowden, Mark. Killing Pablo: The Hunt for the World's Greatest Outlaw(NY: Atlantic Monthly, 2001). Campaign against drug lord Pablo Escobar.

Blair Trujillo, Elsa. Las fuerzas armadas: una mirada civil (Bogotá: CINEP, 1993).

Braun, Herbert. Our Guerrillas, Our Sidewalks. A Journey into the Violence of Colombia [1994] (Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).

Briggs, Jimmie. Innocents Lost: When Child Soldiers Go to War (NY: Basic, 2005).

Broderick, Walter J. El guerrillero invisible (Bogotá: Intermedio, 2000). Spanish guerrilla priest, Manuel Pérez Martínez.

Bowden, Mark. Killing Pablo: The Hunt for the World's Greatest Outlaw (NY: Atlantic Monthly, 2001).

Carrigan, Ana. The Palace of Justice: A Colombian Tragedy (NY: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1993). Colombian military wipes out nation's independent judiciary while attacking guerrillas who had taken Supreme Court hostage.

Castillo, Fabio. Los jinetes de la cocaína (Bogotá: Documentos Periodísticos, 1987).

__________. Los nuevos jinetes de la cocaína (Bogotá: Oveja Negra, 1996).

Castro Caycedo, Germán. Colombia amarga (Bogotá: Circuito de Lectores, 1987).

__________. En secreto (Bogotá: Planeta, 1996). Details on background & career of Carlos Castaño, founder paramilitary AUC & drug lord Pablo Escobar.

Cockburn, Leslie. Looking for Trouble: One Women, Six Wars & A Revolution (NY: Anchor, 2003).

Comisión de Superación de la Violencia. Pacificar la paz: lo que no se ha negociado en los acuerdos de paz (Bogotá: IEPRI/CINEP/Comisión Andina de Jurists, CECOIN, 1992).

Cribari, Rafael. Colombia: operación exterminio (Montevideo: Monte Sexto, 1988).

Drexler, R. W. Colombia & the US: Narcotics Traffic & a Failed Foreign Policy (Jefferson NC, 1997).

Duzán, María Jimena. Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life Inside the Cocaine Wars (NY: HarperCollins, 1994).

Escobar Gaviria, Roberto. Mi hermano Pablo (Bogotá: Quintero, 2000).

Eddy, Paul; Hugo Sabogal & Sara Walden. The Cocaine Wars (NY: Norton, 1988).

Franco Agudelo, Saúl. El quinto, no matar: contextos explicativos de la violencia en Colombia (Bogotá:TM, 1999).

Gabriela, Luz (ed.) La crisis socio-política colombiana: un análisis no coyuntural de la coyuntura (Bogotá, 1997).

García, Clara Inés. Urabá: región, actores y conflicto, 1960-1990 (Medellín, 1996).

García Durán, Mauricio. De la Uribe a Tlaxcala: procesos de paz (Bogotá, 1992). Peace negotiations of 1980’s with M-19, EPL, PRT, MAQL, CGSB, ELN & FARC.

García Márquez, Gabriel. News of a Kidnapping (NY, 1997). That of newspaper heir Francisco Santos, later founder of Fundación País Libre & a grassroots movement for peace.

Giraldo, Carlos Alberto; Jesús Abad Colorado y Diego Pérez. Relatos e imágenes: el desplazamiento en Colombia (Bogotá: CINAP, 1997).

Giraldo, Javier, SJ. Colombia: The Genocidal Democracy (Monroe ME, 1996).

Goff, Stan. Full Spectrum Disorder: The Military in the New American Century (Brooklyn NY: Soft Skull, 2004). Includes author's renegade reflections on experience as trainer of Colombian special forces for war against FARC in early 1990s, & sympathetic politico-military appraisal of FARC.

González, Fernán. Violencia en la región andina: el caso Colombia (Bogotá, 1994).

Grabe, Vera. Razones de vida (Bogotá: Planeta Colombiana, 2000). Memoir of M-19 guerrilla leader turned politician who ran for vice-president in 2002 elections, arguing that "war is not the road to peace."

Gugliotta, Guy & Jeff Leen. Kings of Cocaine: Inside the Medellín Cartel. An Astonishing True Story of Murder, Money, & International Corruption (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1989).

Guillermoprieto, Alma. The Heart that Bleeds. Latin America Now (NY, 1994). Includes New Yorker reports from Bogotá in 1989 & 1993, Medellín in 1991.

__________. Looking for History. Dispatches from Latin America (NY, 2001). Includes three dispatches from Colombia written in April & May, 2000.

__________. Las guerras en Colombia: tres ensayos (Bogotá: Aguilar, 2000).

Hollman, Morris. Operación Ballena Azul: Las armas del Cantón Norte (Bogotá: Intermedio, 2001).

Human Rights Watch. Political Murder & Reform in Colombia. The Violence Continues (NY, 1992).

__________. State of War: Political Violence & Counterinsurgency in Colombia (NY, 1993).

__________. Generation Under Fire: Children & Violence in Colombia (NY, 1994).

__________. Colombia's Killer Networks: The Military-Paramilitary Partnership & the U.S. (Washington, 1996).

__________. War without Quarter. Colombia & International Humanitarian Law (NY, 1998).

Kalmanovitz, Salomón. Violencia y narcotráfico en Colombia (Columbia Latin America Conference Paper 44; NY, 1990).

Kirk, Robin. More Terrible Than Death: Massacres, Drugs & America's War on Colombia (NY: Public Affairs, 2003).

Kline, Harvey F. State Building & Conflict Resolution in Colombia, 1986-1994 (Tuscaloosa AL, 1999).

Landazábal, Gral. Fernando. El equilibrio del poder (Bogotá: Plaza y Janés, 1993).

Lara, Patricia. Siembre vientos y recogerás tempestades: la histora del M-19, sus protagonistas y sus destinos (Bogtá: Planeta, 1986).

__________. Las mujeres en la guerra (Bogotá: Planeta, 2000).

Leal Buitrago, Francisco. Political Crisis & Drug Trafficking in Colombia (NY, 1991).

__________. El oficio de la guerra: la seguridad nacional en Colombia (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo/IEPRI, 1994).

Lévy, Bernard Henri. War, Evil & the End of History (trans. Charlotte Mandell; Hoboken NJ: Melville House, 2004). Chap. 4 on Carlos Castaño.

Marcella, Gabriel & Donald Schulz. Colombia's Three Wars: U.S. Strategy at the Crossroads (Washington?, 1999). U.S. Army War College study.

McClintick, David. Swordfish: A True Story of Ambition, Savagery & Betrayal (NY: Pantheon, 1993).

Medina Gallego, Carlos. Autodefensas, paramilitares y narcotráfico en Colombia: origen, desarrollo y consolidación: el caso "Puerto Boyacá" (Bogotá: Documentos Periodísticos, 1990).

__________. ELN: Una historia contada en dos voces. Entrevista con "el cura" Manuel Pérez y Nicolás Rodríguez Bautista, "Gabino" (Bogotá: Rodríguez Quito, 1996).

Méndez, Juan E. The "Drug War" in Colombia: The Neglected Tragedy of Political Violence (NY, 1990).

Menzel, Sewall H. Cocaine Quagmire. Implementing the U.S. Anti-Drug Policy in the North Andes-Colombia (Lanham MD, 1997).

Nicholl, Charles. The Fruit Palace (NY, 1986). On cocaine trade.

Osterling, Jorge Pablo. Democracy in Colombia: Clientilistic Politics & Guerrilla Warfare (New Brunswick NJ, 1989).

Pacini, Deborah & Christine Franquemont (eds.) Coca & Cocaine: Effects on People & Policy in Latin America (Ithaca, 1986).

Palacios, Marco. Entre la legitimidad y la violencia: Colombia, 1875-1994 (Bogotá, 1995).

Partnoy, Alicia. You Can't Drown the Fire: Latin American Women Writing in Exile (San Francisco: Cleis, 1988). Articles from mid-80's by María Tila Uribe, Clara Nieto de Ponce de León, Laura Restrepo & Olga Behar.

Pax Christi Netherlands. The Kidnap Industry in Colombia: Our Business? (Utrecht: Pax Christi, 2001).

Pearce, Jennie. Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth (London: Latin America Bureau, 1990).

Peñaranda, Ricardo y Javier Guerrero (comps.) De las armas a la política (Bogotá: TM, 1999).

Pizarro Leongómez, Eduardo. Las FARC: de la autodefensa a la combinación de todas las formas de lucha (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo/IEPRI, 1991).

Posada-Carbo, Eduardo (ed.) In Search of a New Order (London, 1997).

__________. Colombia: The Politics of Reforming the State (NY, 1998).

Proyecto Nunca Más. Colombia, nunca más: crímenes de lesa humanidad (Bogotá: Proyecto Nunca Más, 2000).

Randall, S. J. Colombia & the United States: Hegemony & Interdependence (Athens GA: U. of Georgia, 1992).

Rangel Suárez, Alfredo. Colombia: guerra en el fin de siglo (Bogotá: TM, 1998).

Restrepo, Laura. Historia de una traición (México, 1987). M-19 & the Palacio de Justicia; US Ambassador's sabotage of peace process in mid-1980s.

Rey, Oscar Bernardo. Colombia: Guerrilla y Narcotráfico (Bogotá, 1994).

Richani, Nazih. Systems of Violence. The Political Economy of War & Peace in Colombia (Albany NY, 2002).

Rubio, Mauricio. Crímen e impunidad: precisiones sobre la violencia (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo, 1999).

Ruiz, Bert. The Colombian Civil War (Jefferson NC, 2001). Focuses on escalating U.S. military involvement.

Ruiz, Hiram. Colombia's Silent Crisis: One Million Displaced by Violence (Washington, 1998).

Salazar, Alonso. Born to Die in Medellín (London, 1992). Interviews with teen-age contract killers.

__________. La parábola de Pablo: auge y caída de un gran capo del narcotráfico (Bogotá: Planeta, 2001).

Salvatierra, Pedro. Confesiones de un secuestrado: crónicas del Sumapaz (Bogotá: Intermedio, 2001).

Samper, Ernesto. Aquí estoy, y aquí me quedo: testimonio de un gobierno (Bogotá: Ancora, 2000).

Sandoval, Marbel. Gloria Cuartas: por qué no tiene miedo (Bogotá: Planeta, 1997).

Steiner, R. Economic & Institutional Repercussions of the Drug Trade in Colombia (Bogotá, 1999).

Strong, Simon. Whitewash: Pablo Escobar & the Cocaine Wars (London: Macmillan, 1995).

Thoumi, Francisco E. Political Economy & Illegal Drugs in Colombia [1994] (English trans. NY?, 1996).

Villamizar, Darío. Un adiós a la guerra: memoria histórica de los procesos de paz en Colombia (Bogotá: Planeta, 1997).

Villarraga, Alvaro S. & Nelson R. Plazas N. Para reconstruir los sueños (una historia del EPL) (Bogotá: Progresar/Fundación Cultura Democrática, 1994).

Walker, William III. Drug Control in the Americas (Albuquerque: U. New Mexico, 1981).

__________. Drug Control Policy: Essays in Historical & Comparative Perspective (University Park PA: Pennsylvania State U, 1992).

__________ (comp.) Drugs in the Western Hemisphere: An Odyssey of Cultures in Conflict (Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 1996).

Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA). Police Aid & Political Will (Washington, 1987).

__________. Colombia Besieged: Political Violence & State Responsibility (Washington, 1989).

__________. Clear and Present Dangers: The US Military and the War on Drugs in the Andes (Washington, 1991).

__________. The Colombian National Police, Human Rights & U.S. Drug Policy (Washington, 1993)

__________. Losing Ground: Human Rights Advocates under Attack in Colombia (Washington,1997).

Woodrow Wilson Center. Colombia: Human Rights and The Peace Process (Latin America Program, No. 212; Washington,1995).

In the Library: Fiction

de Bernieres, Louis. Señor Vivo & the Coca Lord (NY: Morrow, 1991).

Neissa, Peter A. The Druglord (Mountain View CA: Floricanto, 2004). Fictionalized story of Bogotá drug billionaire Gonzalo Rodríguez Gacha.

Ramos, Franco. Rosario Tijeras (Bogotá: Plaza y Janés, 1999).

Vallejo, Fernando. La virgen de los sicarios (Bogotá: Alfaguara, 1994).

In the Library: For Young Readers

In the Library: Poetry

In the Library: Drama

In the Library: Photography

CD & Audio

Film & Video

"Behind the Cocaine Wars (1991)," dir. Patricia Castaño & Adelaida Trujillo, 52 m. From Latin American Video Archives. Analyzes social issues since 60s & how "Cocaine Wars" since 1989 have increased violence & distracted national leaders from desperately needed social reforms.

"The Bitter Taste of Coca Cola" [200?], dir. Freddy Vargas, 27m. On persecution of trade union leaders, in this case those of SINALTRAINAL, union of bottling plant workers.

"Children of Thunder (Los hijos del trueno)," dir. Marta Rodríguez de Silva, 52 m. From Latin American Video Archives. Crisis in world coffee prices drives Indian peasants of Cauca to cultivate poppy.

"Drug Wars: The Cocaine Cartel" [1991], dir. Paul Krasny, ?m. From Quinta Communications.

"Edipo Alcalde" [1996], dir. Jorge Alí Triana, 100m. Adaptation of Sophocles' Oedipus to world of Colombia's drug wars, with script by Gabriel García Márquez.

"Killing Pablo" [2005], dir. Joe Carnahan, ?m.

"The Law of the Jungle (La ley del monte)" [1989], dir. Patricia Castaño, 60 m. From Latin American Video Archives. Why peasants cultivate coca; conflict between development & environmental protection.

"Lines of Blood. The Drug War in Colombia" [1991], dir. Brian Moser & Julian Ware, 52 m. From Filmakers' Library. Critique of policy that has led only to increased coca production & violence.

"Maria Full of Grace (Maria, llena eres de gracia)" [2004], dir. Joshua Marston, 101m. In video stroes. Stark, moving, strangely hopeful story of teenage Colombian "drug mule" to New York.

"Nothing Will Stop Us (Seguimos adelante)" [1990], dir. Patricia Castaño & Adelaida Trujillo, 52 m. From Latin American Video Archives. Campaign against the drug lords as viewed by Cano family, owners of crusading newspaper El Espectador.

"Our Lady of the Assassins (La virgen de los sicarios)" [2000], dir. Barbet Schroeder, 98m. In video stores.

"Plan Colombia: We Say No" [2001], dir. ?, 20m. From People's Video Network.

"Poppy, the Damned Flower (Amapola, la flor maldita)" [1998], dir. Marta Rodríguez & Lucas Silva, 30 m. From Latin American Video Archives. Indigenous community faces stark choice: raise poppies or starve. Government responds by spraying herbicides rather than offering land reform & education.

"The Rose Seller (La vendedora de rosas)" [1998], dir. Victor Gaviria, 116m.

"Secuestro: A Story of a Kidnapping" [1993], dir. Camila Motta, 92m. From Cinema Guild. Victim's sister re-creates harrowing three months of negotiations for return of Silvia Motta in 1985.

"The True Story of Killing Pablo" [2002], dir. David Keane, 60m. In video stores. Based on Mark Bowden series in Philadelphia Inquirer on life & death of drug lord Pablo Escobar.


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