(see also British West Indies)
CIA World Factbook. Includes map.
On the Web: Specialized Sites
Albuquerque, Klaus. "Rastafarianism & cultural identity," Review Interamericana 10,2 (1980):230-47.
__________ et al. "Uncontrolled urbanization in the developing world: a Jamaican case study," Journal of Developing Areas 14,3 (1980):361-86.
Alleyne, Mervin. "The world view of Jamaicans," Jamaica Journal 17,1 (1984):2-12.
Ambursley, Fitzroy. "Jamaica: from Michael Manley to Edward Seaga," in Ambursley & Cohen (eds.) Crisis in the Caribbean (NY, 1983):, pp. 72-104.
Belisle, Francois J. "Food production & tourism in Jamaica: obstacles to increasing local food supplies to hotels," Journal of Developing Areas 19,1 (1984):1-20.
Bernal, Richard L. "The IMF & class struggle in Jamaica, 1977-1980," Latin American Perspectives 11,3 (1984):53-82.
Bowen, W. Errol. "Rastafarianism & the New Society," Savacou (Kingston) (6/71):41-50.
Brown, Samuel E. "Treatise on the Rastafarian Movement," Caribbean Studies 6 (1966-67):37-40. Basic text from 1930s; the founder's set of rules by which the Rastafarian brothers were to live.
Campbell, Horace. "Jamaica: the myth of economic development & racial tranquility," Black Scholar 4 (2/73):16-24.
__________. "Rastafari: culture of resistance," Race & Class 12 (1980).
Cashmore, E. Ellis. "'Get up, Stand Up': the Rastafarian movement," in Obelkevich et al. Disciplines of Faith (London, 1987):422-31. Good for the 1970s & 80s.
Eyre, Alan L. "Political violence & urban geography in Kingston, Jamaica," Geographical Review 74,1 (1984):24-37.
Ferguson, J. "Jamaica: stories of poverty," Race & Class 34,1 (7-9/92):61-72.
Gannon, John C. "Racial ideology in Jamaican politics: the People's Political Party in the parliamentary elections of 1962," Caribbean Studies 16,3-4 (1976-77):85-108.
Girvan, Norman & Richard Bernal. "The IMF & the foreclosure of development options: the case of Jamaica," Monthly Review 33,9 (2/82):34-48.
Gotay, Samuel. "Rastafarian movement in England," Caribbean Studies 20,2 (6/80):116-18.
Hart, Richard. "The life & resurrection of Marcus Garvey," Race 9,2 (1968):217-38.
Headley, Bernard D. "Mr. Seaga's Jamaica: an inside look," Monthly Review 37,4 (9/85):35-42.
__________. "Behind a Manley victory in Jamaica," Monthly Review 38,9 (2/87):17-30.
__________. "War in a 'Babylon': dynamics of the Jamaican drug economy," Social Justice 15,3-4 (fall-win 88).
Henke, Holger. "Jamaica's decision to pursue a neoliberal development strategy: realignments in the state-business-class triangle," Latin American Perspectives (9/99):7-9. Edward Seaga's policies of the 1980s failed to produce long-term economic development.
Kaufman, Michael. "Sitting in Limbo in Jamaica: Manley's next moves," Nation (12/27/86):734-6.
__________. "Manley returns," Nation (3/6/89):293.
Kitzinger, Sheila. "The Rastafarian Brethren of Jamaica," Comparative Studies in Society & GHistory 9,1 (10/66):23-39.
Kopkind, Andrew. "Jamaica: Socialism soon come," in Working Papers for a New Society I (spr 1977):45-51.
__________. "Reggae: the steady rock of Black Jamaica," Ramparts 11 (6/73):50-51.
Lewin, Arthur. "The fall of Michael Manley: a case study of the failure of reform socialism," Monthly Review 33,9 (2/82):49-60, with comment by Doris Kitson & Lewin reply in 34,5 (10/82).
Martin, Tony. "Marcus Garvey, the Caribbean & the struggle for Black Jamaican nationhood," in Beckles & Shepherd (eds.) Caribbean Freedom (NY, 1996).
Miller, Marian A.L. "The Rastafarian in Jamaican political culture: the marginalization of a change agent," Western Journal of Black Studies 17,2 (sum 93):112-18.
Oumano, Elena. "Reggae says no to politricks," Nation (8/25/97):24, 33-4.
Patterson, H. Orlando. "Rastafari: cult of the outcasts," New Society 4,3 (11/12/64):15-17.
__________. "Jamaica today," New Left Review 31 (1965):35-44.
Reavis, Charles P. "Soul rebels: the Rastafari," Identities 3 (8/96).
Robinson, Cedric. "The African diaspora & the Italo-Ethiopian crisis," Race & Class (fall 85).
Sheller, Mimi. "Quasheba, Mother Queen: Black women's public leadership & political protest in post-Emancipation Jamaica,1834-1865," Slavery & Abolition 19,3 (1998):90-117.
Simon, Peter. "Spiritual balm for a trembling word," Caribbean Review 12 (11/83):32-35.
Vulliamy, Ed. "Jamaica dispatch: roots of violence," New Republic (8/16/99):13. Drug-related gang violence, on increase since arming of poor for self-defense in 1970s, killed 500 in first half of 1999.
Watson, G.L. "Patterns of Black protest in Jamaica: the case of the Rastafarians," Journal of Black Studies 4 (3/74):329-45.
Wedenoja, William. "Modernization & the Pentecostal movement in Jamaica," in Glazier (ed.) Perspectives on Pentecostalism (Washington, 1980).
Weis, Tony. "Kingston's ghetto wars," NACLA Report 35,3 (11-12/01):4-7.
Weisbord, Robert G. "British West Indian reaction to the Italo-Ethiopian War: an episode in Pan-Africanism," Caribbean Studies 10,1 (4/70):34-41.
Wynter, Sylvia. "One Love -- rhetoric or reality? Aspects of Afro-Jamaicanism,"
Caribbean Studies 12,3 (10/72).
In the Library: Non-Fiction Books:
Alleyne, Mervyn. The Roots of Jamaican Culture (London: Pluto, 1988).
Augier, Roy & Rex Nettleford. The Rastafari Movement in Kingston, Jamaica (Mona, 1960).
Austin, Diane J. Urban Life in Kingston, Jamaica: The Culture & Ideology of Two Neighborhoods (NY, 1984).
Austin-Broos, Diane J. Jamaica Genesis. Religion & the Politics of Moral Orders (Chicago: U. of Chicago, 1997).
Barrett, Leonard. The Rastafarians: Sounds of Cultural Dissonance (Boston: Beacon, 1977).
Beckett, George & Michael Witter. Small Garden, Bitter Weed: Struggle & Change in Jamaica (2nd ed. London, 1982).
Bell, Wendell. Jamaican Leaders: Political Attitudes in a New Nation (Berkeley: U. California, 1964).
Boot, Adrian & Chris Salewicz. Songs of Freedom (NY: Penguin, 1995).
Brown, Aggrey. Color, Class & Politics in Jamaica (New Brunswick NJ: Transaction, 1977).
Bryan, Patrick. The Jamaican People, 1880-1902: Race, Class & Social Control (London, 1991).
Buhle, Paul (eed.) C.L.R. James: His Life & Work (London: Alison & Busby, 1986).
__________. C.L.R. James: The Artist as Revolutionary (NY: Verso, 1988).
Campbell, Horace. Rasta & Resistance (Trenton NJ: Africa World, 1987).
Cashmore, Ernesto, Rastaman: The Rastafarian Movement in England (London, 1983).
__________. The Rastafarians (London: Minority Rights Group, 1984).
Chevannes, Barry. Rastafari: Roots & Ideology (Syracuse: U. of Syracuse, 1994).
__________ (ed.) Rastafari & Other African-Caribbean Worldviews (Piscataway NJ, 1998).
Chevigny, Paul. Human Rights in Jamaica (NY: Americas Watch, 1986).
Clarke, Colin G. Kingston, Jamaica: Urban Growth & Social Change, 1692-1962 (Berkeley: U. California, 1975).
Clarke, Peter B. Black Paradise: The Rastafarian Movement (London, 1986).
Cooper, Carolyn. Noises in the Blood: Orality, Gender & the "Vulgar" Body of Jamaican Popular Culture (Durham NC: Duke University, 1995).
Cronon, Edmund D. Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey & the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Madison: U. of Wisconsin, 1968).
Davis, Stephen & Peter Simon. Reggae Bloodlines: In Search of the Music & Cultures of Jamaica (NY, 1977).
__________. Bob Marley (NY, 1985).
__________. Reggae International (NY, 1992).
Dreher, Melanie C. Working Men & Ganja. Marihuana Use in Rural Jamaica (Philadelphia, 1982).
Fax, Elton C. Garvey. The Story of a Pioneer Black Nationalist (NY, 1972).
Feuer, Carl H. Jamaica & the Sugar Worker Cooperatives: The Politics of Reform (Boulder: Westview, 1985).
Frolander-Ulf, Monica & Frank Lindenfield. A New Earth:" Jamaican Sugar Workers' Cooperatives, 1975-1981 (Lanham MD: Scholarly Resources, 1985).
Garvey, Marcus. Life & Lessons (Berkeley: U. California, 1987).
Gordon, Shirley C. God Almighty Make Me Free: Christianity in Preemancipation Jamaica (Bloomington: U. of Indiana, 1996).
Gray, Obika. Radicalism & Social Change in Jamaica, 1960-1972 (Knoxville: U. Tennessee, 1991).
Henry, Paget & Paul Buhle (eds.) C.L.R. James's Caribbean (Durham NC: Duke, 1992).
Heuman, Gad. "The Killing Time": The Morant Bay Rebellion in Jamaica (Knoxville, 1994). Uprising of 1865, led by Baptist preacher Paul Bogle.
Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Freedom. Race, Labor & Politics in Jamaica & Britain, 1832-1938 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U., 1992).
Ledgister, F.S.J. Class Alliances & the Liberal Authoritarian State: The Roots of Post-Colonial Democracy in Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, & Suriname (Trenton NJ: Africa World, 1998).
Kaufman, Michael. Jamaica under Manley: Dilemmas of Socialism & Democracy (London: Zed, 1985).
Keith, Nelson W. & Novella Z. The Social Origins of Democratic Socialism in Jamaica (Philadelphia: Temple U., 1992).
Krofsky, F. Black Nationalism & the Revolution in Music (NY, 1970).
Kuper, Adam. Changing Jamaica (Boston, 1976).
Levi, Darrell E. Michael Manley: The Making of a Leader (Athens GA: U. Georgia, 1990).
Lewis, Rupert. Essays on Power & Change in Jamaica (NY, 1977).
__________. Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion (Trenton NJ, 1988).
__________ & Maureen Warner-Lewis (eds.) Garvey. Africa, Europe & the Americas (Trenton NJ, 1994).
Lloyd, Barry. Jamaica: An Island Microcosm (NY, 1979).
Martin, Tony. Race First: The Ideological & Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey & the U.N.I.A. (Westport CT, 1976).
Morris, Ivor. Obeah, Christ & Rastaman: Jamaica & Its Religion (Cambridge, 1982).
Munroe, Trevor. Jamaican Politics: A Marxist Perspective in Transition (Boulder, 1990).
Nettleford, Rex. Identity, Race & Protest in Jamaica (NY, 1972).
Nicholas, Tracy. Rastafari: A Way of Life (NY, 1979).
Norris, Katrin. Jamaica: The Search for an Identity (London, 1962).
Owens, Joseph. Dread: The Rastafarians of Jamaica (London, 1979).
Patterson, Orlando. The Sociology of Slavery (London, 1967).
Payne, Anthony J. Politics in Jamaica (NY, 1988).
Persaud, Randolph B. Counter-Hegemony & Foreign Policy: The Dialectics of Marginalized & Global Forces in Jamaica (Albany: SUNY, 2000).
Petras, Elizabeth M. Jamaican Labor Migration: White Capital & Black Labour, 1850-1930 (Boulder, 1987).
Post, Ken. Arise Ye Starvelings. The Jamaican Labour Rebellion of 1938 & its Aftermath (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1978).
Pullen-Burry, Bessie. Ethiopia in Exile (Freeport NY, 1971).
Rubin, Vera & Lambros Comitas. Ganja in Jamaica: A Medical & Anthropological Study of Chronic Marihuana Use (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1975).
Sherlock, Philip & Hazel Bennet. The Story of the Jamaican People (Princeton: Princeton U., 1997).
Sherlock, Philip & Hazel Bennett. The Story of the Jamaican People (Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2003).
Stephens, Evelyn H. & John D. Stephens. Democratic Socialism in Jamaica: The Political Movement & Social Transformation in Dependent Capitalism (Princeton: Princeton U., 1997).
Stewart, Robert J. Religion & Society in Post-Emancipation Jamaica (Knoxville: U. Tennessee, 1992).
Stolzoff, Norman C. Wake the Town & Tell the People: Dancehall Culture in Jamaica (Durham NC: Duke, 2000).
Stone, Carl. Class, State & Democracy in Jamaica (NY, 1986).
Taylor, Frank F. To Hell with Paradise: History of the Jamaican Tourist Industry (Pittsburgh: U. of Pittsburgh, 1993).
Thelwell, Michael. Duties, Pleasures & Conflicts: Essays in Struggle (Amherst: U. Massachusetts, 1987).
Thomas, Michael & Adrian Boots. Babylon on a Thin Wire (NY, 1977).
Thompson, R.W. Black Caribbean (London: Macdonald, 1946). Life & politics during WW II.
Waters, Anita. Race, Class & Political Symbols: Rastafari & Reggae in Jamaican Politics (New Brunswick NJ: Transaction, 1985).
Watkins-Owens, Irma. Blood Relations. Caribbean Immigrants & the Harlem Community, 1900-1930 (Bloomington: U. Indiana, 1996).
White, Edgar. Sati, the Rastafarian (NY, 1973).
White, Timothy. Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley (NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1983).
Zips, Werner. Black Rebels. African-Caribbean Freedom Fighters in Jamaica (Princeton: Princeton U., 1999).
In the Library: Fiction
Banks, Russell. The Book of Jamaica (NY: Ballantine, 1980).
Mais, Roger. Brother Man (London: Jonathan Cape, 1954). Novel about origins of Rastafarian movement.
__________. The Hills Were Joyful Together (London: Heinemann, 1981).
__________. Black Lightning (London: Heinemann, 1983).
__________. Listen, the Wind (Harlow: Longman, 1986).
Patterson, H. Orlando. The Children of Sisyphus [1964) (Harlow: Longman, 1982). Life in Kingston slums.
__________. Die the Long Day (NY: Morrow, 1972).
__________. Dinah (
Salkey, Andrew. The Late Emancipation of Jerry Stover (London: Hutchinson, 1968).
__________. A Quality of Violence (London: New Beacon, 1978).
__________. Anancy's Score (London: Bogle L'Ouverture, 1992).
Thelwell, Michael. The Harder They Come (NY: Grove, 1980).
White, Edgar. The Rising: A Novel (NY: M. Boyars, 1988).
In the Library: Drama
White, Edgar. The Underground: Four Plays (NY: Morrow, 1970).
__________. Lament for Rastafari & other Plays (NY: M. Boyars, 1983).
__________. The Nine Night & Ritual by Water (London: Methuen, 1984).
__________. Redemption song; The Boot Dance; Les Femmes Noires: Three Plays (NY: M. Boyars, 1985).
Marley, Bob "Songs of Freedom" The Bob Marley Collection
Jimmy Cliff. "The Harder They Come" (soundtrack) . Mango
"Life and Debt" , dir. Stephanie Black, 86m. From Tuff Gong Pictures. Documents terrible cost over a quarter of a century, of Jamaica's forced adoption of IMF "reforms" in late 70s.
"Steppin'" , dir. Saul Landau, 45m. From Cinema Guild. Michael Manley campaigning throughout the island during presidential election.