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Nicaragua: Sandinista Regime

(see also Central America General, Nicaragua, Nicaragua: Atlantic Coast & Nicaragua since 1990)

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CIA World Factbook. Includes map.

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UN Development Program, Human Development Indicators

World Guide

On the Web: Articles

On the Web: Specialized Sites

Ibermundo Nicaragua

In the Library: Articles

Alegria, Claribel. Album Familiar (San Carlos, Guatemala: Editorial Universitaria Centroamericana,1984).

Hugo Assmann, "Teología de la alfabetización," Nicarauac 5 (abr-jun 1981):126-32.

Bendaña, Alejandro. "The rise & fall of the FSLN," NACLA Report 37,6 (5-6/04):21-26.

Burbach, Roger. "Nicaragua: the course of the Revolution," Monthly Review 32,9 (2/80):28-39.

Christensen, Russ. "Witness in Nicaragua," Monthly Review 36,1 (5/84):11-21.

Cockburn, Alexander. "Free speech and official offal," In These Times (11/22-12/5/89):17.

Cohen, W.H. "Nicaragua: the revolution takes hold," Christianity & Crisis 40 (12 may 1980):137-40.

Crahan, Margaret E. "Religion & politics in revolutionary Nicaragua," in S. Mainwaring & A. Wilde (eds.) The Progressive Church in Latin America (Notre Dame, 1989).

__________. "Religion & revolution: Cuba & Nicaragua," in Gannon (ed.) World Catholicism in Transition (NY, 1988).

d'Escoto, Miguel. "The church born of the people in Nicaragua," in S. Torres & J. Eagleson (eds.) Challenge of Basic Christian Communities (Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1981).

Dodson , Michael. "The politics of religion in revolutionary Nicaragua," Annals of the American Association of Political & Social Science 483 (jan 1986):36-49.

__________. "Comparing the popular church in Nicaragua & Brazil," Journal of Interamerican Studies & World Affairs 26,1 (feb 1984):131-36.

__________. "Nicaragua: the struggle for the church," in Daniel Levine (ed.) Religion & Political Conflict in Latin America (1986), pp. 79-105.

Fagen, Richard. "The Nicaraguan crisis," Monthly Review 34,6 (11/82):1-17.

Finnegan, Bill. "Travels with Ernesto. God, art & revolution in the new Nicaragua," New Age Journal (jun 1984):35-43,76-80.

Gismondi, Michael A. "Transformations in the holy: religious resistance and hegemonic struggles in the Nicaraguan revolution," Latin American Perspectives 13,3 (sum 1986):13-36.

Hammond, John L. "Resettlement & rural development in Nicaragua," Monthly Review 41,5 (10/89):22-34.

Hernández Pico, Juan. "The experience of Nicaragua's revolutionary Christians," in S. Torres & J. Eagleson (eds.) Challenge of Basic Christian Communities (Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1981), pp. 62-76.

Hertz, Michael K. "Misunderstandings: Nicaragua," Monthly Review 36,4 (9/84):35-43.

Jerez, César. "The Church & the Nicaraguan revolution," Cross Currents 34 (spring 1984):5-20.

__________. "Los dilemas de la Iglesia Católica frente al proceso revolucionario nicaragüense," Diakonia 29 (mar 1984):21-46.

Kelly, Tom. "Culture & liberation," Christianity & Crisis (12/23/85):522-25.

Kinzer, Stephen. "Love in a time of revolution," NY Review of Books (11/21/02). Review essay on Belli, Love in a Time of Revolution.

Kirk, John. "John Paul II and the exorcism of liberation theology," Bulletin of Latin American Research 4,1 (1985):33-47.

__________. "Pastoral visit or political manipulation: reflections on John Paul II's visit to Nicaragua," in Canadian Association of Latin American & Caribbean Studies, Latin America & the Caribbean (Ottawa, 1984), pp. 176-87.

Lewellen, Ted C. "Holy & unholy alliances: the politics of Catholicism in revolutionary Nicaragua," Journal of Church & State 31 (win 1989):15-33.

Libby, Ronald T. "Listen to the bishops," Foreign Policy 52 (fall 1983):78-95.

Lobel, Jules. "The new Nicaraguan Constitution: uniting participatory & representative democracy," Monthly Review 39,7 (12/87):1-17.

Marchetti, Peter. "Church & revolution in Nicaragua," Monthly Review 34,3 (jul-aug 1982):43-55.

McKiernan, Kevin. "Shrines & slogans. The divided church in Nicaragua," Mother Jones (apr 1984):27-33,48- 53.

Millman, Joel. "Nicaragua's social revolution rests largely on scripture and Christian base communities," In These Times (24 feb 1988):12-13,22.

Minnery, Tom. "Why the Gospel grows in Socialist Nicaragua," Christianity Today 27,7 (8 apr 1983):34-42.

Molina, Uriel. "El sendero de una experiencia," Nicarauac 5 (abr-jun 1981):17-38.

Mulligan, Joseph E. SJ "The historical significance of Nicaragua," Monthly Review 39,8 (1/88):1-10.

__________. "On the fifteenth anniversary of the Sandinista triumph: interview with a revolutionary priest," Monthly Review 46,3 (7-8/94):1-13.

Obando y Bravo, Manuel. "Nicaraguan bishops on socialism," Christianity & Crisis 40 (12 may 1980):147.

Parajón, Gustavo. "So that we might have tomorrow (interview)," Sojourners 12,3 (mar 1983):29-30.

Pike, Frederick B. "The Catholic Church in Central America," Review of Politics 21,1 (jan 1959):83-113.

Petras, James. "Whither the Nicaraguan Revolution?" Monthly Review 31,5 (10/71):1-22.

Reding, Andrew. "Seed of a new & renewed Church: the 'ecclesiastical insurrection' in Nicaragua," Monthly Review 39,3 (7-8/87):24-55.

__________ & others. "These days in Managua. Three views of a besieged life," Christianity & Crisis (20 oct 1986):360-67.

Rickwell, Rick, Noreene Janus & Kristin Neubauer. "Sandinista salvation?" In These Times (11/12/01):10-

Samandú, Luis E. "Los poderosos de la tierra se preocupan como en tiempos de Jesús: fe y compromiso política entre los campesinos de Jalapa, Nicaragua," Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe 35 (dec 1983):85-100.

__________. "Nicaragua: dictadura somocista, movimiento popular e Iglesia, 1968-1979," Estudios Sociales Centroamericanos 33 (sep-dic 1982):189-220.

Schafer, Heinrich. "Religión dualista causada por antagonismos sociales. Trasfondos sociales del protestantismo en Centroamérica," Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe 45 (dec 1988):69-90.

Scheinman, Kate. "Singing with the people," Monthly Review 37,9 (3/86):38-44.

Serra, Luis. "Ideología, religión y lucha de clases en la revolución," en R. Harris y C. Vilas (comps.) La revolución en Nicaragua (Mexico, 1985), pp. 158-86, or in abridged English ed. of same (NY, 1987).

Siebert, Rudolf J. "Ernesto Cardenal and the Nicaraguan Revolution. From theological theory to revolutionary praxis," Cross Currents 30 (fall 1980):241-51.

Skinner, Joseph K. "Somocistas on trial," Monthly Review 33,10 (3/82):49-59.

Stark, John. "Nicaragua: the Church in revolution, revolution in the Church," Forward 5 (spr 1986):49-63.

Stephens, Beth. "Women in Nicaragua," Monthly Review 40,4 (9/88):1-18.

Vanden, Harry E. "The ideology of the Nicaraguan Revolution," Monthly Review 34,2 (6/82):25-41.

Vilas, Carlos M. "The mass organizations in Nicaragua: the current problematic & perspectives for the future," Monthly Review 38,6 (11/86):20-31, with comment by Robinson & Norsworthy (12/86) & Vilas' reply (3/87).

Wallis, Jim & Joyce Holliday. "A fragile experiment: Nicaragua," Sojourners 12,3 (mar 1983):14-18.

Williams, Philip J. "The Catholic hierarchy in the Nicaraguan Revolution," Journal of Latin American Studies 17,2 (nov 1985):341-69.

__________. "The Catholic Church in the Nicaraguan Revolucion: differing responses & new challenges," in S. Mainwaring & A. Wilde (eds.) The Progressive Church in Latin America (Notre Dame, 1989), pp. 64-102.

__________. "Limits of religious influence in Nicaragua," in E. Cleary & H. Stewart-Gambino (eds.) Conflict & Competition (Boulder, 1992).

In the Library: Non-Fiction Books

Belli, Gioconda. El país bajo mi piel: memorias de amor y guerra (Barcelona: Plaza y Janes, 2001; English trans. The Country Under My Skin: A Memory of Love & War; NY: Knopf, 2002). Devastating account of sexism & an active discrimination against women in the Sandinista leadership.

Borge, Tomás. Carlos, The Dawn Is No Longer Beyond Our Reach: The Prison Journals of... (Vancouver: New Star, 1984).

Bradstock, Andrew. Saints & Sandinistas. The Catholic Church in Nicaragua & its Response to the Revolution (London, 1987).

Brown, Timothy C. The Real Contra War: Highlander Peasant Resistance in Nicaragua (Norman: U. Oklahoma, 2001).

Cabestrero, Teófilo. Revolutionaries for the Gospel . Testimonies of 15 Christians in the Nicaraguan Government (Maryknoll, 1986).

__________. Un grito a Diós y al mundo. El ayuno por la paz del canciller d'Escoto y del pueblo de Nicaragua (San José, 1986).

__________. No nos separó la muerte. Felipe y Mary Barreda, esposos cristianos que dieron su vida por Nicaragua (Santander, 1985).

Cabezas, Omar. La montaña es algo más que una inmensa estepa verde [Fire from the Mountain] (Managua: Editorial Nuevo, 1982; English trad. NY: Crown, 1985).

Casaldáliga, Pedro. Prophets in Combat. Nicaraguan Journals (NY, 1988).

CEPAD. Reflexiones sobre fe y revolución (Managua, 1982).

Center for the Study of the Americas. Listen, Compañero: Conversations with Central American Revolutionary Leaders (San Francisco: Solidarity, 1983). Interview with Comandante Jaime Wheelock.

Crahan, Margaret E. Varieties of Faith: Religion in Contemporary Nicaragua (Kellogg Institute Working Paper 5; Notre Dame, 1983).

Dixon, Marlene & Susanne Jonas (eds.) Nicaragua under Siege (San Francisco: Synthesis, 1984).

Dodson, Michael & Laura Nuzzi O'Shaughness. Nicaragua's Other Revolution: Religious Faith & Political Struggle (Chapel Hill: U. of North Carolina, 1990).

Everett, Melissa. Interviews with North Americans Living & Working in Nicaragua (Philadelphia: New Society, 1986).

Foroohar, Manzar. The Catholic Church & Social Change in Nicaragua (Albany NY: SUNY, 1989).

García Gallardo, Araceli. Donde vuelan las gaviotas: género y etnia. Regiones autónomas de Nicaragua (1979-1992) (Managua: Colectivo Gaviota, 2000).

Girardi, Giulio. Faith & Revolution in Nicaragua (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1989), or the more extensive Spanish version, Sandinismo, marxismo y cristianismo en la nueva Nicaragua (México, 1985).

González Gary, Oscar. Iglesia católica y revolución en Nicaragua (México, 1986).

Harnecker, Marta. Los cristianos y la revolución sandinista (Managua, 1986).

Haslam, David. Faith in Struggle. The Protestant Churches in Nicaragua & their Response to Revolution (London, 1987).

Hart, Diana Walta. Thanks to God & the Revolution: The Oral History of a Nicaraguan Family (Madison: U. Wisconsin, 1990).

Hollyday, Joyce. Turning Toward Home. A Sojourn of Hope (NY, 1989).

Horton, Lynn. Peasants in Arms: War & Peace in the Mountains of Nicaragua (Athens: Ohio U. Center for International Studies, 1998).

Jonas, Susanne & Nancy Stein. The Construction of Democracy in Nicaragua (San Francisco: Global Options, 1989).

Lancaster, Roger N. Thanks to God & the Revolution. Popular Religion & Class Consciousness in the New Nicaragua (NY: Columbia, 1988).

__________. Life is Hard: Machismo, Danger, & the Intimacy of Power in Nicaragua (Berkeley: U. of California, 1992).

Lappé, Frances Moore & Joseph Collins. Now We Can Speak: A Journey Through the New Nicaragua (San Francisco: Institute for Food & Development Policy, 1982).

Maryknoll Sisters. Reflections from Maryknoll Sisters in Nicaragua (Managua, 1982).

McGinnis, James. Solidarity with the People of Nicaragua (Maryknoll, 1985).

Mejía Godoy, Carlos y Pablo Martínez. La misa campesina nicaragüense (Managua, 1982).

Mulligan, Joseph E. SJ. The Nicaraguan Church & the Revolution (Kansas City, 1991).

Opazo Bernales, Andrés. Popular Religious Movements & Social Change in Central America (Boulder, 1990).

Palma, Milagros. Por los senderos míticos de Nicaragua (Managua, 1984).

O'Shaughnessy, Laura Nuzzi & Luis H. Serra. The Church & Revolution in Nicaragua (Athens OH, 1986).

Pochet, Rosa María y Abelino Martínez, Nicaragua: Iglesia: manipulación o profecía (San José, 1987)
Pravera, Kate C. The primacy of orthopraxis: theological method in the Nicaraguan Church of the Poor (unpub. PhD. Northwestern, 198?)

Randall, Margaret. Sandino's Daughters: Testimonies of Nicaraguan Women in Struggle (Vancouver: New Star, 1981).

__________. Christians & the Nicaraguan Revolution (Vancouver: New Star, 1983).

__________. Risking a Somersault in the Air: Conversations with Nicaraguan Writers (San Francisco: Solidarity, 1984).

Reding, Andrew (ed.) Christianity & Revolution . Tomás Borge's Theology of Life (Maryknoll, 1988).

Rodríguez García, Manuel. Gaspar vive (San José, 1981). Biography of a Spanish priest-guerrillero who was killed fighting against Somoza in 1978.

Scharper, Philip & Sally. The Gospel in Art by the Peasants of Solentiname (Maryknoll, 198?).

Schneider, Sister Edith PHJC. Love in the Midst of Agression. A Nicaraguan Journal (Donaldson IN, 1985).

Schultz, Ursula. Tu paz es mi paz (Managua, 1982).

Selser, Irene. Cardenal Obando (México, 1989).

Walker, Thomas W. Nicaragua: The Land of Sandino (Boulder: Westview, 1981).

__________ (ed.) Nicaragua in Revolution (NY: Praeger, 1982).

__________ (ed.) Nicaragua: The First Five Years (NY: Praeger, 1985).

__________ (ed.) Reagan vs. the Sandinistas: The Undeclared War on Nicaragua (Boulder: Westview, 1987).

__________ (ed.) Revolution & Counterrevolution in Nicaragua (Boulder: Westview, 1991).

__________ (ed.) Nicaragua Without Illusions: Regime Transition & Structural Adjustment in the 1990s (Wilmington DE: SR Books, 1997).

Wheelock, Jaime. Jaime Wheelock Román on the Nicaraguan Revolution (San Francisco: Center for the Study of American Militarism & Economic Crisis, 1985).

Whisnant, David E. Rascally Signs in Sacred Places. The Politics of Culture in Nicaragua (Chapel Hill: U. of North Carolina, 1995).

Williams, Philip J. The Catholic Church & Politics in Nicaragua & Costa Rica (Pittsburgh, 1989).

Zimmerman, Matilde. Sandinista: Carlos Fonseca & the Nicaraguan Revolution (Durham NC: Duke, 2000).

In the Library: Fiction

Belli, Gioconda. La mujer habitada [The Inhabited Woman](Managua: Vanguardia, 1980; English trans. Willimantic CT: Curbstone, 1994).

Ramírez, Sergio. ¿Te dió miedo la sangre? [To Bury Our Fathers] (Caracas: Monte Avila, 1977; English trans. NY: Readers International, 1984).

In the Library: Poetry

Belli, Gioconda. Amor insurrecto (Managua: Nueva Nicaragua, 1984).

Cardenal, Ernesto. El estrecho dudoso [1960] (Managua: Nueva Nicaragua, 1985).

__________. Flights of Victory/Vuelos de Victoria (Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1985).

Murguía, Alejandro & Barbara Paschke (eds.) Volcán: Poems from Central America (San Francisco: City Lights, 1983). Bilingual ed. of poems by Ernesto Mejia Sánchez, Carlos Martínez Rivas, Leonel Rugama, Carlos Rigby, Fanor Tellez, Ivan Uriarte, David Macfield, Gaspar García Laviana, Vidaluz Meneses, Carlos José Guadamuz, Roberto Vargas, Daisy Zamora, Gioconda Belli, Rosario Murillo, Ernesto Cardenal & José Coronel Urtecho.

In the Library: Photography

CD & Audio:

Film & Video:

"Carla's Song (La canción de Carla)" [1996], dir. Ken Loach, 127m. Traumatized Nica refugee in Glasgow befriended by Scottish busdriver, with whom returns to investigate past & is caught up in maelstrom of Contra War.

"From the Ashes: Nicaragua Today" [1983], dir. Helena Solbert-Ladd, 28m. From Cinema Guild.

"Innovating Nicaragua" [1986], dir. John Mraz, 40m. From Cinema Guild. Documentary on efforts of Innovators Movement of Sandinista Workers' Union to produce replacement machine parts & other critical items during US economic blockade.

"Latino" [1985], dir. Haskell Wexler, ?m. From Cinecom International.

"Nicaragua: the Dirty War" [1985], dir. D. Lacourse & Y. Patry, 68m. From Cinema Guild. Contra army vs. Sandinistas & Nicaragua's civilian population.

"Nicaragua: Scenes from the Revolution" [1979], dir. John Chapman, 30m. From Cinema Guild. Resistance to Somoza & US from Sandino to Sandinistas; first 100 days of Sandinsta Revolution.

"Una Bella Mision" [1983], dir.?, 36m. From Cinema Guild. Documentary on Cuban teachers working in Nicaragua.

"Vamos a hacer un país (We're Building a New Country)" [1986], dir. Melissa Young, 30m. From Moving Images. Brigadistas from Seattle help citizens of Tierra Blanca build a school.

"The World is Watching" [1987], dir. Peter Raymont, 52m or 82m. From First Run/Icarus. Contras' war against Nicaragua.

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