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(see also Burundi, Congo Democratic Republic, Tanzania, Uganda & Genocide)

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CIA World Factbook. Includes map.

New Internationalist Profile

UN Development Program, Human Development Indicators

World Guide

On the Web: Articles

Against Tutsi vs. Hutu Ignorance. Emily Wax, Rwanda Rugali (?/02).

Rwandan Ghosts. Victor Peskin, Legal Affairs (9-10/02). Eight years after genocide, International Tribunal fails to separate victims from perpetrators.

The US & Genocide in Rwanda: Evidence of Inaction. William Ferroggiaro (ed.), National Security Archive (8/20/01).

Justice in Rwanda. PBS (1999?).

The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide? Bronwyn Adcock, Australian Broadcasting Company (2/21/99).

UN Convention on the Prevention & Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (12/9/48).

On the Web: Specialized Sites

Coalition for International Justice.

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.

Genocide in Rwanda (Questia).

The US & the Genocide in Rwanda. National Security Archives (8/20/01).

WWW Virtual Library.

In the Library: Articles

Acquaro, Kimberlee & Peter Landesman. "Out of madness, a matriarchy," Mother Jones (1-2/03):59-63.

Adelman, Howard. "Chaos in the camps," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 58,6 (11-12/2002):89-93. Thugs ruling UN sanctioned refugee camps in Congo Democratic Republic.

Mukamabano, Madeleine (ed.) "We were calling to death," Harper's (2/03):13-16.

Newbury, Catherine. "Ethnicity & the politics of history in Rwanda," Africa Today (1-3/98):7-24.

Newbury, David & Catharine Newbury. "Bringing the peasants back in: Agrarian themes in the construction & corrosion of statist historiography in Rwanda," American Historical Review 105,3 (jun 2000):832-77.

O'Hara, Thomas J. "Rwandan bishops faltered in face of crisis," National Catholic Reporter (9/29/95):16-17. Church too close to regime?

Peck, John E. "The Rwanda genocide: there's more to the story," World Watch (11-12/02):4. Explores connections between strongman Paul Kagame & the US military.

Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to genocide," Atlantic (9/01). How US passed up many opportunities to intervene & prevent the mass killings of 1994.

Wilkinson, Ray. "The heart of darkness," Refugees 110 (win 97):5-13.

In the Library: Non-Fiction Books

Adisa, Folajinmi Olabode. The Comfort of Strangers: The Impact of Rwandan Refugees on Neighboring Countries (Nairobi: UNCHS, 1996).

African Rights. Rwanda: Death, Despair & Defiance (rev. ed. London, 1995).

__________. Rwanda: The Insurgency in the Northwest (London, 1998).

Amnesty International. Rwanda: Persecution of the Tutsi Minority & Repression of Government Critics, 1990-1992 (NY, 1992).

__________. Rwanda: Mass Murder by Government Supporters in April & May 1994 (NY, 1994).

__________. Rwanda: Reports of Killings & Abductions by the Rwandese Patriotic Army, April-August 1994 (NY, 1994).

__________. Rwanda, Crying Out for Justice (NY, 1995).

__________. Rwanda & Burundi, The Return Home: Rumours & Realities (NY, 1996).

__________. Rwanda: Ending the Silence (NY, 1997).

__________. Rwanda: The Hidden Violence. "Disappearances" & Killings Continue (NY, 1998).

__________. Rwanda Public Statement: Response to Criticisms of Amnesty International in the African Rights Report, Rwanda: The Insurgency in the Northwest (NY, 1999).

Berkeley, Bill. The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe & Power in the Heart of Africa (NY: Basic Books, 2002).

Bertrand, Jordane. Rwanda, le piège de l'histoire: l'opposition democratique avant le genocide, 1990-1994 (Paris, 2000).

Braeckman, Colette. Rwanda: histoire d'un genocide (Paris, 1994).

Briggs, Jimmie. Innocents Lost: When Child Soldiers Go to War (NY: Basic, 2005).

Campbell, Kenneth J. Genocide & the Global Village (NY: Palgrave, 2001). Details on US & UN actions (& inaction) before & during the slaughter in Rwanda.

Copson, Raymond W. Rwanda & Burundi: Background & US Policy Options (Washington, 1994).

Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (NY: Carroll & Graf, 2004).

DesForges, Alison. Rwanda, the Crisis Continues (NY, 1995).

Destexhe, Alain. Rwanda & Genocide in the 20th C.(NY, 1995).

Gourevitch, Philip. We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families. Stories from Rwanda (NY, 1998). Graphic detail, including charge that French Army's Operation Turquoise in 1994 prolonged slaughter of Tutsis & allowed killers safe passage to Zaire.

Hartley, Aidan. The Zanzibar Chest: A Story of Life, Love, & Death in Foreign Lands (Boston, MA: Atlantic Monthly, 2003).

Hinton, Alexander Laban. Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide (Berkeley: U. California, 2002).

Human Rights Watch. Slaughter Among Neighbors: The Political Origins of Communal Violence (New Haven: Yale, 1995).

__________. Rwanda: The Search for Security & Human Rights Abuses (NY, 2000).

Kamukama, Dixon. Rwanda Conflict: Its Roots & Regional Implications [1993] (2nd ed..; Kampala, 1998).

Kayizzi-Mugerwa, Steve. Rwanda Looking Ahead: Reconciliation, Reform & Regional Stability (Stockholm, 2000).

Koff, Clara. The Bone Woman: A Forensic Anthropologist's Search for Truth in the Mass Graves of Rwanda, Bosnia, Croatia & Kosovo (NY: Random House, 2004).

Lemarchand, René. Genocide in the Great Lakes: Which Genocide? Whose Genocide? (New Haven: Yale Center for International & Area Studies, 1998).

__________. Exclusion, Marginalization & Political Mobilization: The Road to Hell in the Great Lakes (Copenhagen: U. of Copenhagen Center of African Studies, 2001)

Malkki, Liisa. Purity & Exile: Violence, Memory & the National Cosmology among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania (Chicago: U. Chicago, 1995).

Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers. Colonialism, Nativism & the Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton: Princeton U., 2001).

Mills, Nicolaus & Kira Brunner (eds.) The New Killing Fields: Massacre & the Politics of Intervention (NY: Basic Books, 2002).

Millwood, David (ed.) The International Response to Conflict & Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience (Copenhagen, 1996).

Nyankanzi, Edward L. Genocide: Rwanda & Burundi (Rochester VT: Schenkman, 1998).

Nyrop, Richard F. et al. Rwanda: A Country Study [1974] (5th ed.; 1985).

Peterson, Scott. Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan & Rwanda (NY: Routledge, 2000).

Prunier, Gérard. The Rwanda Crisis. History of a Genocide (NY, 1995).

Refugees International. The Lost Refugees: Herded & Hunted in Eastern Zaire (Washington, 1997).

Reyntjens, Filip. Talking or Fighting? Political Evolution in Rwanda & Burundi, 1998-1999 (Uppsala: Nordiska Africainstitutet, 1999).

__________. Small States in an Unstable Region: Rwanda & Burundi, 1999-2000 (Uppsala: Nordiska Africainstitutet, 2000).

__________. Again at the Crossroads: Rwanda & Burundi, 2000-2001 (Uppsala: Nordiska Africainstitutet, 2001).

Tebbs, J. Rwanda, War & Peace? (Nijmegen, 1999).

US Congress. House Committee on International Relations. Rwanda: Genocide & the Continuing Cycle of Violence (Washington, 1998).

Various Authors. Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes & Genocide (Washington, 1995).

In the Library: Fiction

Courtemanche, Gil. A Sunday at the Pool in Kigali (Dimanche à la piscine à Kigali) (trans. Patricia Claxton; NY: Knopf, 2003).

Leonard, Elmore. Pagan Babies (NY: Delacorte, 2000). Detroit-Rwanda connection.

Pierce, Julian R. Speak Rwanda (NY, 1999). Novel of the genocide as experienced by five Hutus & five Tutsis.

In the Library: Poetry

Haag, Jan. "Rwanda"

In the Library: Photography

Peress, Gilles. The Silence (NY: Scalo, 1995).

CD & Audio

Film & Video

"100 Days" [2001], dir. Nick Hughes, 100m. Documentary on 1994 genocide.

"Hotel Rwanda" [2004], dir. Terry George, 121m. In video stores. Kigali hotel manager harbors Tutsi & Hutu refugees during massacres, & saves hundreds.

"Rwanda" (1995), produced by Globalvision, 27m.

"Sometimes in April" [2005], dir. Raoul Peck, 140m. In video stores. Hutu teacher reminisces a decade later about his own experiences as a soldier during the genocide in which his wife & children were killed.

Monterey Bay Educators Against War
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